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The Wealth of Networks


by

Yochai Benkler

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Notes

CHAPTER 1. Introduction: A Moment of Opportunity and Challenge 1. Barry Wellman et al., "The Social Affordances of the Internet for Networked Individualism," JCMC 8, no. 3 (April 2003). 2. Langdon Winner, ed., "Do Artifacts Have Politics?" in The Whale and The Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 19­39. 3. Harold Innis, The Bias of Communication (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1951). Innis too is often lumped with McLuhan and Walter Ong as a technological determinist. His work was, however, one of a political economist, and he emphasized the relationship between technology and economic and social organization, much more than the deterministic operation of technology on human cognition and capability. 4. Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (New York: Basic Books, 1999). 5. Manuel Castells, The Rise of Networked Society (Cambridge, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996).

PART I. The Networked Information Economy 1. Elizabeth Eisenstein, Printing Press as an Agent of Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

CHAPTER 2. Some Basic Economics of Information Production and Innovation 1. The full statement was: "[A]ny information obtained, say a new method of production, should, from the welfare point of view, be available free of charge (apart from the costs of transmitting information). This insures optimal utilization of the information but of course provides no incentive for investment in research. In a free enterprise economy, inventive activity is supported by using the invention to create property rights; precisely to the extent that it is successful, there is an underutilization of information." Kenneth Arrow, "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," in Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, ed. Richard R. Nelson (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962), 616­617. 2. Suzanne Scotchmer, "Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Cumulative Research and the Patent Law," Journal of Economic Perspectives 5 (1991): 29­41. 3. Eldred v. Ashcroft, 537 U.S. 186 (2003). 4. Adam Jaffe, "The U.S. Patent System in Transition: Policy Innovation and the Innovation Process," Research Policy 29 (2000): 531. 5. Josh Lerner, "Patent Protection and Innovation Over 150 Years" (working paper no. 8977, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 2002). 6. At most, a "hot news" exception on the model of International News Service v. Associated Press, 248 U.S. 215 (1918), might be required. Even that, however, would only be applicable to online editions that are for pay. In paper, habits of reading, accreditation of the original paper, and first-to-market advantages of even a few hours would be enough. Online, where the first-to-market advantage could shrink to seconds, "hot news" protection may be worthwhile. However, almost all papers are available for free and rely solely on advertising. The benefits of reading a copied version are, at that point, practically insignificant to the reader. 7. Wesley Cohen, R. Nelson, and J. Walsh, "Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (or Not)" (working paper no. 7552, National Bureau Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 2000); Richard Levin et al., "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development"Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 3 (1987): 783; Mansfield et al., "Imitation Costs and Patents: An Empirical Study," The Economic Journal 91 (1981): 907. 8. In the 2002 Economic Census, compare NAICS categories 5415 (computer systems and related services) to NAICS 5112 (software publishing). Between the 1997 Economic Census and the 2002 census, this ratio remained stable, at about 36 percent in 1997 and 37 percent in 2002. See 2002 Economic Census, "Industry Series, Information, Software Publishers, and Computer Systems, Design and Related Services" (Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau, 2004). 9. Levin et al., "Appropriating the Returns," 794­796 (secrecy, lead time, and learningcurve advantages regarded as more effective than patents by most firms). See also F. M. Scherer, "Learning by Doing and International Trade in Semiconductors" (faculty research working paper series R94-13, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 1994), an empirical study of semiconductor industry suggesting that for industries with steep learning curves, investment in information production is driven by advantages of being first down the learning curve rather than the expectation of legal rights of exclusion. The absorption effect is described in Wesley M. Cohen and Daniel A. Leventhal, "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," The Economic Journal 99 (1989): 569­596. The collaboration effect was initially described in Richard R. Nelson, "The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research," Journal of Political Economy 67 (June 1959): 297­306. The most extensive work over the past fifteen years, and the source of the term of learning networks, has been from Woody Powell on knowledge and learning networks. Identifying the role of markets made concentrated by the limited ability to use information, rather than through exclusive rights, was made in F. M. Scherer, "Nordhaus's Theory of Optimal Patent Life: A Geometric Reinterpretation," American Economic Review 62 (1972): 422­427. 10. Eric von Hippel, Democratizing Innovation (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005). 11. Eben Moglen, "Anarchism Triumphant: Free Software and the Death of Copyright," First Monday (1999), http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue4_8/moglen/. CHAPTER 3. Peer Production and Sharing 1. For an excellent history of the free software movement and of open-source development, see Glyn Moody, Rebel Code: Inside Linux and the Open Source Revolution (New York: Perseus Publishing, 2001). 2. Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). 3. Josh Lerner and Jean Tirole, "The Scope of Open Source Licensing" (Harvard NOM working paper no. 02­42, table 1, Cambridge, MA, 2002). The figure is computed out of the data reported in this paper for the number of free software development projects that Lerner and Tirole identify as having "restrictive" or "very restrictive" licenses. 4. Netcraft, April 2004 Web Server Survey, http://news.netcraft.com/archives/web_ server_survey.html. 5. Clickworkers Results: Crater Marking Activity, July 3, 2001, http://clickworkers.arc .nasa.gov/documents/crater-marking.pdf. 6. B. Kanefsky, N. G. Barlow, and V. C. Gulick, Can Distributed Volunteers Accomplish Massive Data Analysis Tasks? http://www.clickworkers.arc.nasa.gov/documents /abstract.pdf. 7. J. Giles, "Special Report: Internet Encyclopedias Go Head to Head," Nature, December 14, 2005, available at http://www.nature.com/news/2005/051212/full/438900a.html. 8. http://www.techcentralstation.com/111504A.html. 9. Yochai Benkler, "Coase's Penguin, or Linux and the Nature of the Firm," Yale Law Journal 112 (2001): 369. 10. IBM Collaborative User Experience Research Group, History Flows: Results (2003), http://www.research.ibm.com/history/results.htm. 11. For the full argument, see Yochai Benkler, "Some Economics of Wireless Communications," Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 16 (2002): 25; and Yochai Benkler, "Overcoming Agoraphobia: Building the Commons of the Digitally Networked Environment," Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 11 (1998): 287. For an excellent overview of the intellectual history of this debate and a contribution to the institutional design necessary to make space for this change, see Kevin Werbach, "Supercommons: Towards a Unified Theory of Wireless Communication," Texas Law Review 82 (2004): 863. The policy implications of computationally intensive radios using wide bands were first raised by George Gilder in "The New Rule of the Wireless," Forbes ASAP, March 29, 1993, and Paul Baran, "Visions of the 21st Century Communications: Is the Shortage of Radio Spectrum for Broadband Networks of the Future a Self Made Problem?" (keynote talk transcript, 8th Annual Conference on Next Generation Networks, Washington, DC, November 9, 1994). Both statements focused on the potential abundance of spectrum, and how it renders "spectrum management" obsolete. Eli Noam was the first to point out that, even if one did not buy the idea that computationally intensive radios eliminated scarcity, they still rendered spectrum property rights obsolete, and enabled instead a fluid, dynamic, real-time market in spectrum clearance rights. See Eli Noam, "Taking the Next Step Beyond Spectrum Auctions: Open Spectrum Access," Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Communications Magazine 33, no. 12 (1995): 66­73; later elaborated in Eli Noam, "Spectrum Auction: Yesterday's Heresy, Today's Orthodoxy, Tomorrow's Anachronism. Taking the Next Step to Open Spectrum Access," Journal of Law and Economics 41 (1998): 765, 778­780. The argument that equipment markets based on a spectrum commons, or free access to frequencies, could replace the role planned for markets in spectrum property rights with computationally intensive equipment and sophisticated network sharing protocols, and would likely be more efficient even assuming that scarcity persists, was made in Benkler, "Overcoming Agoraphobia." Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (New York: Basic Books, 1999) and Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World (New York: Random House, 2001) developed a rationale based on the innovation dynamic in support of the economic value of open wireless networks. David Reed, "Comments for FCC Spectrum Task Force on Spectrum Policy," filed with the Federal Communications Commission July 10, 2002, crystallized the technical underpinnings and limitations of the idea that spectrum can be regarded as property. 11. See Benkler, "Some Economics," 44­47. The term "cooperation gain" was developed by Reed to describe a somewhat broader concept than "diversity gain" is in multiuser information theory. 12. Spectrum Policy Task Force Report to the Commission (Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC, 2002); Michael K. Powell, "Broadband Migration III: New Directions in Wireless Policy" (Remarks at the Silicon Flatiron Telecommunications Program, University of Colorado at Boulder, October 30, 2002).

CHAPTER 4. The Economics of Social Production 1. Richard M. Titmuss, The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy (New York: Vintage Books, 1971), 94. 2. Kenneth J. Arrow, "Gifts and Exchanges," Philosophy & Public Affairs 1 (1972): 343.

3. Bruno S. Frey, Not Just for Money: An Economic Theory of Personal Motivation (Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar, 1997); Bruno S. Frey, Inspiring Economics: Human Motivation in Political Economy (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2001), 52­72. An excellent survey of this literature is Bruno S. Frey and Reto Jegen, "Motivation Crowding Theory," Journal of Economic Surveys 15, no. 5 (2001): 589. For a crystallization of the underlying psychological theory, see Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior (New York: Plenum, 1985). 4. Roland Benabou and Jean Tirole, "Self-Confidence and Social Interactions" (working ´ paper no. 7585, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, March 2000). 5. Truman F. Bewley, "A Depressed Labor Market as Explained by Participants," American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings) 85 (1995): 250, provides survey data about managers' beliefs about the effects of incentive contracts; Margit Osterloh and Bruno S. Frey, "Motivation, Knowledge Transfer, and Organizational Form," Organization Science 11 (2000): 538, provides evidence that employees with tacit knowledge communicate it to coworkers more efficiently without extrinsic motivations, with the appropriate social motivations, than when money is offered for "teaching" their knowledge; Bruno S. Frey and Felix Oberholzer-Gee, "The Cost of Price Incentives: An Empirical Analysis of Motivation Crowding-Out," American Economic Review 87 (1997): 746; and Howard Kunreuther and Douslar Easterling, "Are Risk-Benefit Tradeoffs Possible in Siting Hazardous Facilities?" American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings) 80 (1990): 252­286, describe empirical studies where communities became less willing to accept undesirable public facilities (Not in My Back Yard or NIMBY) when offered compensation, relative to when the arguments made were policy based on the common weal; Uri Gneezy and Aldo Rustichini, "A Fine Is a Price," Journal of Legal Studies 29 (2000): 1, found that introducing a fine for tardy pickup of kindergarten kids increased, rather than decreased, the tardiness of parents, and once the sense of social obligation was lost to the sense that it was "merely" a transaction, the parents continued to be late at pickup, even after the fine was removed. 6. James S. Coleman, "Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital," American Journal of Sociology 94, supplement (1988): S95, S108. For important early contributions to this literature, see Mark Granovetter, "The Strength of Weak Ties," American Journal of Sociology 78 (1973): 1360; Mark Granovetter, Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974); Yoram BenPorath, "The F-Connection: Families, Friends and Firms and the Organization of Exchange," Population and Development Review 6 (1980): 1. 7. Nan Lin, Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 150­151. 8. Steve Weber, The Success of Open Source (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004). 9. Maurice Godelier, The Enigma of the Gift, trans. Nora Scott (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 5. 10. Godelier, The Enigma, 106.

11. In the legal literature, Robert Ellickson, Order Without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991), is the locus classicus for showing how social norms can substitute for law. For a bibliography of the social norms literature outside of law, see Richard H. McAdams, "The Origin, Development, and Regulation of Norms," Michigan Law Review 96 (1997): 338n1, 339n2. Early contributions were: Edna Ullman-Margalit, The Emergence of Norms (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977); James Coleman, "Norms as Social Capital," in Economic Imperialism: The Economic Approach Applied Outside the Field of Economics, ed. Peter Bernholz and Gerard Radnitsky (New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1987), 133­155; Sally E. Merry, "Rethinking Gossip and Scandal," in Toward a Theory of Social Control, Fundamentals, ed. Donald Black (New York: Academic Press, 1984). 12. On policing, see Robert C. Ellickson, "Controlling Chronic Misconduct in City Spaces: Of Panhandlers, Skid Rows, and Public-Space Zoning," Yale Law Journal 105 (1996): 1165, 1194­1202; and Dan M. Kahan, "Between Economics and Sociology: The New Path of Deterrence," Michigan Law Review 95 (1997): 2477. 13. An early and broad claim in the name of commons in resources for communication and transportation, as well as human community building--like roads, canals, or social-gathering places--is Carol Rose, "The Comedy of the Commons: Custom, Commerce, and Inherently Public Property," University Chicago Law Review 53 (1986): 711. Condensing around the work of Elinor Ostrom, a more narrowly defined literature developed over the course of the 1990s: Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Another seminal study was James M. Acheson, The Lobster Gangs of Maine (New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 1988). A brief intellectual history of the study of common resource pools and common property regimes can be found in Charlotte Hess and Elinor Ostrom, "Ideas, Artifacts, Facilities, and Content: Information as a Common-Pool Resource," Law & Contemporary Problems 66 (2003): 111.

CHAPTER 5. Individual Freedom: Autonomy, Information, and Law 1. Robert Post, "Meiklejohn's Mistake: Individual Autonomy and the Reform of Public Discourse," University of Colorado Law Review 64 (1993): 1109, 1130­1132. 2. This conception of property was first introduced and developed systematically by Robert Lee Hale in the 1920s and 1930s, and was more recently integrated with contemporary postmodern critiques of power by Duncan Kennedy, Sexy Dressing Etc.: Essays on the Power and Politics of Cultural Identity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993). 3. White Paper, "Controlling Your Network, A Must for Cable Operators" (1999), http:// www.cptech.org/ecom/openaccess/cisco1.html. 4. Data are all based on FCC Report on High Speed Services, Appendix to Fourth 706 Report NOI (Washington, DC: Federal Communications Commission, December 2003).

CHAPTER 6. Political Freedom Part 1: The Trouble with Mass Media 1. Jurgen Habermas, Between Facts and Norms, Contributions to Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996). 2. Elizabeth Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979); Jeremey Popkin, News and Politics in the Age of Revolution: Jean Luzac's Gazzette de Leyde (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989). 3. Paul Starr, The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications (New York: Basic Books, 2004), 33­46. 4. Starr, Creation of the Media, 48­62, 86­87. 5. Starr, Creation of the Media, 131­133. 6. Starr, Creation of the Media, 135. 7. The following discussion of the birth of radio is adapted from Yochai Benkler, "Overcoming Agoraphobia: Building the Commons of the Digitally Networked Environment," Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 11 (Winter 1997­1998): 287. That article provides the detailed support for the description. The major secondary works relied on are Erik Barnouw, A History of Broadcasting in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966­1970); Gleason Archer, History of Radio to 1926 (New York: Arno Press, 1971); and Philip T. Rosen, Modern Stentors: Radio Broadcasters and the Federal Government, 1920­1934 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980). 8. Robert Waterman McChesney, Telecommunications, Mass Media, and Democracy: The Battle for the Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928­1935 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993). 9. "Names of U.S. Dead Read on Nightline," Associated Press Report, May 1, 2004, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4864247/. 10. The numbers given here are taken from The Center for Responsive Politics, http:// www.opensecrets.org/, and are based on information released by the Federal Elections Commission. 11. A careful catalog of these makes up the first part of C. Edwin Baker, Media, Markets, and Democracy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002). 12. Ben H. Bagdikian, The Media Monopoly, 5th ed. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1997), 118. 13. Peter O. Steiner, "Program Patterns and Preferences, and the Workability of Competition in Radio Broadcasting," The Quarterly Journal of Economics 66 (1952): 194. The major other contribution in this literature is Jack H. Beebe, "Institutional Structure and Program Choices in Television Markets," The Quarterly Journal of Economics 91 (1977): 15. A parallel line of analysis of the relationship between programming and the market structure of broadcasting began with Michael Spence and Bruce Owen, "Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition, and Welfare," The Quarterly Journal of Economics 91 (1977): 103. For an excellent review of this literature, see Matthew L. Spitzer, "Justifying Minority Preferences in Broadcasting," South California Law Review 64 (1991): 293, 304­319.

CHAPTER 7. Political Freedom Part 2: Emergence of the Networked Public Sphere 1. Reno v. ACLU, 521 U.S. 844, 852­853, and 896­897 (1997). 2. Elizabeth Jensen, "Sinclair Fires Journalist After Critical Comments," Los Angeles Times, October 19, 2004. 3. Jensen, "Sinclair Fires Journalist"; Sheridan Lyons, "Fired Reporter Tells Why He Spoke Out," Baltimore Sun, October 29, 2004. 4. The various posts are archived and can be read, chronologically, at http:// www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/week2004_1010.php. 5. Duane D. Stanford, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, October 31, 2002, 1A. 6. Katherine Q. Seelye, "The 2002 Campaign: The States; Georgia About to Plunge into Touch-Screen Voting," New York Times, October 30, 2002, A22. 7. Edward Walsh, "Election Day to Be Test of Voting Process," Washington Post, November 4, 2002, A1. 8. Washington Post, December 12, 2002. 9. Online Policy Group v. Diebold, Inc., 337 F. Supp. 2d 1195 (2004). 10. California Secretary of State Voting Systems Panel, Meeting Minutes, November 3, 2003, http://www.ss.ca.gov/elections/vspmin110303.pdf. 11. Eli Noam, "Will the Internet Be Bad for Democracy?" (November 2001), http:// www.citi.columbia.edu/elinoam/articles/intbaddem.htm. 12. Eli Noam, "The Internet Still Wide, Open, and Competitive?" Paper presented at The Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, September 2003, http:// www.tprc.org/papers/2003/200/noam_TPRC2003.pdf. 13. Federal Communications Commission, Report on High Speed Services, December 2003. 14. See Eszter Hargittai, "The Changing Online Landscape: From Free-For-All to Commercial Gatekeeping," http://www.eszter.com/research/pubs/hargittai-onlinelandscape.pdf. 15. Derek de Solla Price, "Networks of Scientific Papers," Science 149 (1965): 510; Herbert Simon, "On a Class of Skew Distribution Function," Biometrica 42 (1955): 425­440, reprinted in Herbert Simon, Models of Man Social and Rational: Mathematical Essays on Rational Human Behavior in a Social Setting (New York: Garland, 1957). 16. Albert-Laszio Barabasi and Reka Albert, "Emergence of Scaling in Random Net´ ´ works," Science 286 (1999): 509. 17. Bernardo Huberman and Lada Adamic, "Growth Dynamics of the World Wide Web," Nature 401 (1999): 131. 18. Albert-Laszio Barabasi, Linked, How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and ´ ´ What It Means for Business, Science, and Everyday Life (New York: Penguin, 2003), 56­57. One unpublished quantitative study showed specifically that the skewness holds for political Web sites related to various hot-button political issues in the United States--like abortion, gun control, or the death penalty. A small fraction of the Web sites discussing these issues account for the large majority of links into them. Matthew Hindman, Kostas Tsioutsiouliklis, and Judy Johnson, " `Googelarchy': How a Few Heavily Linked Sites Dominate Politics on the Web," July 28, 2003, http:// www.scholar.google.com/url?sa U&q http://www.princeton.edu/ mhindman/ googlearchy--hindman.pdf. 19. Lada Adamic and Bernardo Huberman, "Power Law Distribution of the World Wide Web," Science 287 (2000): 2115. 20. Ravi Kumar et al., "Trawling the Web for Emerging Cyber-Communities," WWW8/ Computer Networks 31, nos. 11­16 (1999): 1481­1493. 21. Gary W. Flake et al., "Self-Organization and Identification of Web Communities," IEEE Computer 35, no. 3 (2002): 66­71. Another paper that showed significant internal citations within topics was Soumen Chakrabati et al., "The Structure of Broad Topics on the Web," WWW2002, Honolulu, HI, May 7­11, 2002. 22. Lada Adamic and Natalie Glance, "The Political Blogosphere and the 2004 Election: Divided They Blog," March 1, 2005, http://www.blogpulse.com/papers/2005/ AdamicGlanceBlogWWW.pdf. 23. M.E.J. Newman, "The Structure and Function of Complex Networks," Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Review 45, section 4.2.2 (2003): 167­256; S. N. Dorogovstev and J.F.F. Mendes, Evolution of Networks: From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). 24. This structure was first described by Andrei Broder et al., "Graph Structure of the Web," paper presented at www9 conference (1999), http://www.almaden.ibm.com/ webfountain/resources/GraphStructureintheWeb.pdf. It has since been further studied, refined, and substantiated in various studies. 25. Dill et al., "Self-Similarity in the Web" (San Jose, CA: IBM Almaden Research Center, 2001); S. N. Dorogovstev and J.F.F. Mendes, Evolution of Networks. 26. Soumen Chakrabarti et al., "The Structure of Broad Topics on the Web," WWW2002, Honolulu, HI, May 7­11, 2002. 27. Daniel W. Drezner and Henry Farrell, "The Power and Politics of Blogs" (July 2004), http://www.danieldrezner.com/research/blogpaperfinal.pdf. 28. D. J. Watts and S. H. Strogatz, "Collective Dynamics of `Small World' Networks," Nature 393 (1998): 440­442; D. J. Watts, Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks Between Order and Randomness (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999). 29. Clay Shirky, "Power Law, Weblogs, and Inequality" (February 8, 2003), http:// www.shirky.com/writings/powerlaw_weblog.htm; Jason Kottke, "Weblogs and Power Laws" (February 9, 2003), http://www.kottke.org/03/02/weblogs-and-power-laws. 30. Ravi Kumar et al., "On the Bursty Evolution of Blogspace," Proceedings of WWW2003, May 20­24, 2003, http://www2003.org/cdrom/papers/refereed/p477/ p477-kumar/p477-kumar.htm. 31. Both of these findings are consistent with even more recent work by Hargittai, E., J. Gallo and S. Zehnder, "Mapping the Political Blogosphere: An Analysis of LargeScale Online Political Discussions," 2005. Poster presented at the International Communication Association meetings, New York. 32. Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Case Program: " `Big Media' Meets `Bloggers': Coverage of Trent Lott's Remarks at Strom Thurmond's Birthday Party," http:// www.ksg.harvard.edu/presspol/Research_Publications/Case_Studies/1731_0.pdf.

33. Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs, The Next Social Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 2002). 34. Data taken from CIA World Fact Book (Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2004). 35. Lawrence Solum and Minn Chung, "The Layers Principle: Internet Architecture and the Law" (working paper no. 55, University of San Diego School of Law, Public Law and Legal Theory, June 2003). 36. Amnesty International, People's Republic of China, State Control of the Internet in China (2002). 37. A synthesis of news-based accounts is Babak Rahimi, "Cyberdissent: The Internet in Revolutionary Iran," Middle East Review of International Affairs 7, no. 3 (2003).

CHAPTER 8. Cultural Freedom: A Culture Both Plastic and Critical 1. Karl Marx, "Introduction to a Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right," Deutsch-Franzosicher Jahrbucher (1844). ¨ 2. Bruce A. Ackerman, Social Justice and the Liberal State (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 1980), 333­335, 141­146. 3. Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality (New York: Basic Books, 1983), 29. 4. Will Kymlicka, Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), 76, 83. 5. Jurgen Habermas, Between Facts and Norms, Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998), 22­23. 6. Encyclopedia.com is a part of Highbeam Research, Inc., which combines free and pay research services. Bartleby provides searching and access to many reference and highculture works at no charge, combining it with advertising, a book store, and many links to Amazon.com or to the publishers for purchasing the printed versions of the materials. 7. Jack Balkin, "Digital Speech and Democratic Culture: A Theory of Freedom of Expression for the Information Society," New York University Law Review 79 (2004): 1.

CHAPTER 9. Justice and Development 1. Anne Alstott and Bruce Ackerman, The Stakeholder Society (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999). 2. Numbers are all taken from the 2004 Human Development Report (New York: UN Development Programme, 2004). 3. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: Knopf, 1999), 46­47. 4. Carol Tenopir and Donald W. King, Towards Electronic Journals: Realities for Scientists, Librarians, and Publishers (Washington, DC: Special Libraries Association, 2000), 273.

5. Harold Varmus, E-Biomed: A Proposal for Electronic Publications in the Biomedical Sciences (Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1999). 6. C. K. Prahald, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty Through Profits (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School of Publishing, 2005), 319­357, Section 4, "The ITC e-Choupal Story." 7. For the sources of numbers for the software industry, see chapter 2 in this volume. IBM numbers, in particular, are identified in figure 2.1. 8. These arguments were set out most clearly and early in a public exchange of letters between Representative Villanueva Nunez in Peru and Microsoft's representatives in that country. The exchange can be found on the Web site of the Open Source Initiative, http://www.opensource.org/docs/peruandms.php. 9. A good regional study of the extent and details of educational deprivation is Mahbub ul Haq and Khadija ul Haq, Human Development in South Asia 1998: The Education Challenge (Islamabad, Pakistan: Human Development Center). 10. Robert Evenson and D. Gollin, eds., Crop Variety Improvement and Its Effect on Productivity: The Impact of International Agricultural Research (New York: CABI Pub., 2002); results summarized in Robert Evenson and D. Gollin, "Assessing the Impact of the Green Revolution, 1960­2000," Science 300 (May 2003): 758­762. 11. Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology 1492­2000 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), table 2.2. 12. USDA National Agriculture Statistics Survey (2004), http://www.usda.gov/ nass/aggraphs/fncht3.htm. 13. First Report of the GM Science Review Panel, An Open Review of the Science Relevant to GM Crops and Food Based on the Interests and Concerns of the Public, United Kingdom, July 2003. 14. Robert E. Evenson, "GMOs: Prospects for Productivity Increases in Developing Countries," Journal of Agricultural and Food Industrial Organization 2 (2004): article 2. 15. Elliot Marshall, "A Deal for the Rice Genome," Science 296 (April 2002): 34. 16. Jikun Huang et al., "Plant Biotechnology in China," Science 295 (2002): 674. 17. Huang et al., "Plant Biotechnology." 18. Richard Atkinson et al., "Public Sector Collaboration for Agricultural IP Management," Science 301 (2003): 174. 19. This table is a slightly expanded version of one originally published in Yochai Benkler, "Commons Based Strategies and the Problems of Patents," Science 305 (2004): 1110. 20. Wim Broothaertz et al., "Gene Transfer to Plants by Diverse Species of Bacteria," Nature 433 (2005): 629. 21. These numbers and others in this paragraph are taken from the 2004 WHO World Health Report, Annex Table 2. 22. National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resource Statistics, Special Report: National Patterns of Research and Development Resources: 2003 NSF 05­308 (Arlington, VA: NSF, 2005), table 1. 23. The detailed analysis can be found in Amy Kapzcynzki et al., "Addressing Global Health Inequities: An Open Licensing Paradigm for Public Sector Inventions," Berkeley Journal of Law and Technology (Spring 2005). 24. See Jean Lanjouw, "A New Global Patent Regime for Diseases: U.S. and International Legal Issues," Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 16 (2002). 25. S. Maurer, A. Sali, and A. Rai, "Finding Cures for Tropical Disease: Is Open Source the Answer?" Public Library of Science: Medicine 1, no. 3 (December 2004): e56.

CHAPTER 10. Social Ties: Networking Together 1. Sherry Turkle, "Virtuality and Its Discontents, Searching for Community in Cyberspace," The American Prospect 7, no. 24 (1996); Sherry Turkle, Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995). 2. Robert Kraut et al., "Internet Paradox, A Social Technology that Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well Being," American Psychologist 53 (1998): 1017­ 1031. 3. A fairly typical statement of this view, quoted in a study commissioned by the Kellogg Foundation, was: "TV or other media, such as computers, are no longer a kind of `electronic hearth,' where a family will gather around and make decisions or have discussions. My position, based on our most recent studies, is that most media in the home are working against bringing families together." Christopher Lee et al., "Evaluating Information and Communications Technology: Perspective for a Balanced Approach," Report to the Kellogg Foundation (December 17, 2001), http:// www.si.umich.edu/pne/kellogg/013.html. 4. Norman H. Nie and Lutz Ebring, "Internet and Society, A Preliminary Report," Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society, February 17, 2000, 15 (Press Release), http://www.pkp.ubc.ca/bctf/Stanford_Report.pdf. 5. Ibid., 42­43, tables CH-WFAM, CH-WFRN. 6. See John Markoff and A. Newer, "Lonelier Crowd Emerges in Internet Study," New York Times, February 16, 2000, section A, page 1, column 1. 7. Nie and Ebring, "Internet and Society," 19. 8. Amitai Etzioni, "Debating the Societal Effects of the Internet: Connecting with the World," Public Perspective 11 (May/June 2000): 42, also available at http:// www.gwu.edu/ ccps/etzioni/A273.html. 9. Manuel Castells, The Rise of Networked Society 2d ed. (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, Inc., 2000). 10. Barry Wellman et al., "The Social Affordances of the Internet for Networked Individualism," Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 8, no. 3 (April 2003). 11. Robert Kraut et al., "Internet Paradox Revisited," Journal of Social Issues 58, no. 1 (2002): 49. 12. Keith Hampton and Barry Wellman, "Neighboring in Netville: How the Internet Supports Community and Social Capital in a Wired Suburb," City & Community 2, no. 4 (December 2003): 277. 13. Gustavo S. Mesch and Yael Levanon, "Community Networking and Locally-Based Social Ties in Two Suburban Localities," City & Community 2, no. 4 (December 2003): 335. 14. Useful surveys include: Paul DiMaggio et al., "Social Implications of the Internet," Annual Review of Sociology 27 (2001): 307­336; Robyn B. Driskell and Larry Lyon, "Are Virtual Communities True Communities? Examining the Environments and Elements of Community," City & Community 1, no. 4 (December 2002): 349; James E. Katz and Ronald E. Rice, Social Consequences of Internet Use: Access, Involvement, Interaction (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002). 15. Barry Wellman, "Computer Networks as Social Networks," Science 293, issue 5537 (September 2001): 2031. 16. Jeffery I. Cole et al., "The UCLA Internet Report: Surveying the Digital Future, Year Three" (UCLA Center for Communication Policy, January 2003), 33, 55, 62, http:// www.ccp.ucla.edu/pdf/UCLA-Internet-Report-Year-Three.pdf. 17. Pew Internet and Daily Life Project (August 11, 2004), report available at http:// www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/131/report_display.asp. 18. See Barry Wellman, "The Social Affordances of the Internet for Networked Individualism," Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 8, no. 3 (April 2003); Gustavo S. Mesch and Yael Levanon, "Community Networking and Locally-Based Social Ties in Two Suburban Localities, City & Community 2, no. 4 (December 2003): 335. 19. Barry Wellman, "The Social Affordances of the Internet." 20. A review of Ito's own work and that of other scholars of Japanese techno-youth culture is Mizuko Ito, "Mobile Phones, Japanese Youth, and the Re-Placement of Social Contact," forthcoming in Mobile Communications: Re-negotiation of the Social Sphere, ed., Rich Ling and P. Pedersen (New York: Springer, 2005). 21. Dana M. Boyd, "Friendster and Publicly Articulated Social Networking," Conference on Human Factors and Computing Systems (CHI 2004) (Vienna: ACM, April 24­29, 2004). 22. James W. Carrey, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989). 23. Clay Shirky, "A Group Is Its Own Worst Enemy," published first in Networks, Economics and Culture mailing list July 1, 2003.

PART III. Policies of Freedom at a Moment of Transformation 1. For a review of the literature and a substantial contribution to it, see James Boyle, "The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain," Law and Contemporary Problems 66 (Winter-Spring 2003): 33­74. 2. Early versions in the legal literature of the skepticism regarding the growth of exclusive rights were Ralph Brown's work on trademarks, Benjamin Kaplan's caution over the gathering storm that would become the Copyright Act of 1976, and Stephen Breyer's work questioning the economic necessity of copyright in many industries. Until, and including the 1980s, these remained, for the most part, rare voices--joined in the 1980s by David Lange's poetic exhortation for the public domain; Pamela Samuelson's systematic critique of the application of copyright to computer programs, long before anyone was paying attention; Jessica Litman's early work on the political economy of copyright legislation and the systematic refusal to recognize the public domain as such; and William Fisher's theoretical exploration of fair use. The 1990s saw a significant growth of academic questioning of enclosure: Samuelson continued to press the question of copyright in software and digital materials; Litman added a steady stream of prescient observations as to where the digital copyright was going and how it was going wrong; Peter Jaszi attacked the notion of the romantic author; Ray Patterson developed a user-centric view of copyright; Diane Zimmerman revitalized the debate over the conflict between copyright and the first amendment; James Boyle introduced erudite criticism of the theoretical coherence of the relentless drive to propertization; Niva Elkin Koren explored copyright and democracy; Keith Aoki questioned trademark, patents, and global trade systems; Julie Cohen early explored technical protection systems and privacy; and Eben Moglen began mercilessly to apply the insights of free software to hack at the foundations of intellectual property apologia. Rebecca Eisenberg, and more recently, Arti Rai, questioned the wisdom of patents on research tools to biomedical innovation. In this decade, William Fisher, Larry Lessig, Litman, and Siva Vaidhyanathan have each described the various forms that the enclosure movement has taken and exposed its many limitations. Lessig and Vaidhyanathan, in particular, have begun to explore the relations between the institutional battles and the freedom in the networked environment.

CHAPTER 11. The Battle Over the Institutional Ecology of the Digital Environment 1. Paul Starr, The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications (New York: Basic Books, 2004). 2. Ithiel de Sola-Pool, Technologies of Freedom (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1983), 91­100. 3. Bridgeport Music, Inc. v. Dimension Films, 2004 U.S. App. LEXIS 26877. 4. Other layer-based abstractions have been proposed, most effectively by Lawrence Solum and Minn Chung, The Layers Principle: Internet Architecture and the Law, University of San Diego Public Law Research Paper No. 55. Their model more closely hews to the OSI layers, and is tailored to being more specifically usable for a particular legal principle--never regulate at a level lower than you need to. I seek a higherlevel abstraction whose role is not to serve as a tool to constrain specific rules, but as a map for understanding the relationships between diverse institutional elements as they relate to the basic problem of how information is produced and exchanged in society. 5. The first major treatment of this phenomenon was Michael Froomkin, "The Internet as a Source of Regulatory Arbitrage" (1996), http://www.law.miami.edu/froomkin/ articles/arbitr.htm. 6. Jonathan Krim, "AOL Blocks Spammers' Web Sites," Washington Post, March 20, 2004, p. A01; also available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?page name article&contentId A9449-2004Mar19¬Found true. 7. FCC Report on High Speed Services, December 2003 (Appendix to Fourth 706 Report NOI). 8. 216 F.3d 871 (9th Cir. 2000). 9. National Cable and Telecommunications Association v. Brand X Internet Services (decided June 27, 2005). 10. Turner Broad. Sys. v. FCC, 512 U.S. 622 (1994) and Turner Broad. Sys. v. FCC, 520 U.S. 180 (1997). 11. Chesapeake & Potomac Tel. Co. v. United States, 42 F.3d 181 (4th Cir. 1994); Comcast Cablevision of Broward County, Inc. v. Broward County, 124 F. Supp. 2d 685, 698 (D. Fla., 2000). 12. The locus classicus of the economists' critique was Ronald Coase, "The Federal Communications Commission," Journal of Law and Economics 2 (1959): 1. The best worked-out version of how these property rights would look remains Arthur S. De Vany et al., "A Property System for Market Allocation of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: A Legal-Economic-Engineering Study," Stanford Law Review 21 (1969): 1499. 13. City of Abilene, Texas v. Federal Communications Commission, 164 F3d 49 (1999). 14. Nixon v. Missouri Municipal League, 541 U.S. 125 (2004). 15. Bill Number S. 2048, 107th Congress, 2nd Session. 16. Felten v. Recording Indust. Assoc. of America Inc., No. CV- 01-2669 (D.N.J. June 26, 2001). 17. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer v. Grokster, Ltd. (decided June 27, 2005). 18. See Felix Oberholzer and Koleman Strumpf, "The Effect of File Sharing on Record Sales" (working paper), http://www.unc.edu/cigar/papers/FileSharing_March2004 .pdf. 19. Mary Madden and Amanda Lenhart, "Music Downloading, File-Sharing, and Copyright" (Pew, July 2003), http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIPCopyrightMemo .pdf/. 20. Lee Rainie and Mary Madden, "The State of Music Downloading and File-Sharing Online" (Pew, April 2004), http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIPFilesharing_April 04.pdf. 21. See 111 F.Supp.2d at 310, fns. 69­70; PBS Frontline report, http://www.pbs.org/ wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/hollywood/business/windows.html. 22. A. M. Froomkin, "Semi-Private International Rulemaking: Lessons Learned from the WIPO Domain Name Process," http://www.personal.law.miami.edu/froomkin/ articles/TPRC99.pdf. 23. Jessica Litman, "The Exclusive Right to Read," Cardozo Arts and Entertainment Law Journal 13 (1994): 29. 24. MAI Systems Corp. v. Peak Computer, Inc., 991 F.2d 511 (9th Cir. 1993). 25. Lawrence Lessig, Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity (New York: Penguin Press, 2004). 26. Jessica Litman, "Electronic Commerce and Free Speech," Journal of Ethics and Information Technology 1 (1999): 213.

27. See Department of Justice Intellectual Property Policy and Programs, http:// www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/ippolicy.htm. 28. Eldred v. Ashcroft, 537 U.S. 186 (2003). 29. Bridgeport Music, Inc. v. Dimension Films, 383 F.3d 390 (6th Cir.2004). 30. 383 F3d 390, 400. 31. Mark A. Lemley, "Intellectual Property and Shrinkwrap Licenses," Southern California Law Review 68 (1995): 1239, 1248­1253. 32. 86 F.3d 1447 (7th Cir. 1996). 33. For a more complete technical explanation, see Yochai Benkler, "An Unhurried View of Private Ordering in Information Transactions," Vanderbilt Law Review 53 (2000): 2063. 34. James Boyle, "Cruel, Mean or Lavish? Economic Analysis, Price Discrimination and Digital Intellectual Property," Vanderbilt Law Review 53 (2000); Julie E. Cohen, "Copyright and the Jurisprudence of Self-Help," Berkeley Technology Law Journal 13 (1998): 1089; Niva Elkin-Koren, "Copyright Policy and the Limits of Freedom of Contract," Berkeley Technology Law Journal 12 (1997): 93. 35. Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co., Inc., 499 U.S. 340, 349­350 (1991). 36. Directive No. 96/9/EC on the legal protection of databases, 1996 O.J. (L 77) 20. 37. J. H. Reichman and Paul F. Uhlir, "Database Protection at the Crossroads: Recent Developments and Their Impact on Science and Technology," Berkeley Technology Law Journal 14 (1999): 793; Stephen M. Maurer and Suzanne Scotchmer, "Database Protection: Is It Broken and Should We Fix It?" Science 284 (1999): 1129. 38. See Stephen M. Maurer, P. Bernt Hugenholtz, and Harlan J. Onsrud, "Europe's Database Experiment," Science 294 (2001): 789; Stephen M. Maurer, "Across Two Worlds: Database Protection in the U.S. and Europe," paper prepared for Industry Canada's Conference on Intellectual Property and Innovation in the KnowledgeBased Economy, May 23­24 2001. 39. Peter Weiss, "Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts" (U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, February 2002). 40. eBay, Inc. v. Bidder's Edge, Inc., 2000 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 13326 (N.D.Cal. 2000). 41. The preemption model could be similar to the model followed by the Second Circuit in NBA v. Motorola, 105 F.3d 841 (2d Cir. 1997), which restricted state misappropriation claims to narrow bounds delimited by federal policy embedded in the Copyright Act. This might require actual proof that the bots have stopped service, or threaten the service's very existence. 42. New York Times v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254, 266 (1964).

Index

Abilene, Texas, 407 access: broadband services, concentration of, 240; cable providers, regulation of, 399­401; human development and justice, 13­15; influence exaction, 156, 158­159; large-audience programming, 197, 204­210, 259­ 260; limited by mass media, 197­199; to medicine, 344­353; to raw data, 313­314; systematically blocked by policy routers, 147­149, 156, 197­198, 397 access regulation. See policy accreditation, 68, 75­80, 169­174, 183­ 184; Amazon, 75; capacity for, by mass media, 199; concentration of mass-media power, 157, 220­225, 235, 237­241; as distributed system, 171­ 172; Google, 76; Open Directory Project (ODP), 76; power of mass media owners, 197, 199­204, 220­225; as public good, 12; Slashdot, 76­80, 104 Ackerman, Bruce, 184, 281, 305­307 action, individual. See individual capabilities active vs. passive consumers, 126­127, 135 ad hoc mesh networks, 89 Adamic, Lada, 244, 246­248, 257 Adams, Scott, 138 advertiser-supported media, 194­195, 199­ 204; lowest-common-denominator programming, 197, 204­210, 259­260; reflection of consumer preference, 203 aggregate effect of individual action, 4­ 5. See also clusters in network topology; peer production agonistic giving, 83 agricultural innovation, commons-based, 329­344

Index

Albert, Reka, 243­244, 251 alertness, undermined by commercialism, 197, 204­210 alienation, 359­361 allocating excess capacity, 81­89, 114­115, 157, 351­352 almanac-type information, emergence of, 70. See also Wikipedia project Alstott, Anne, 305 altruism, 82­83 Amazon, 75 anticircumvention provisions, DMCA, 414­417 antidevice provisions, DMCA, 415 Antidilution Act of 1995, 290, 447 appropriation strategies, 49 arbitrage, domain names, 433 archiving of scientific publications, 325­ 326 Arrow, Kenneth, 36, 93 ArXiv.org, 325­326 asymmetric commons, 61­62 AT&T, 191, 194 Atrios (blogger Duncan Black), 263 attention fragmentation, 15, 234­235, 238, 256, 465­466. See also social relations and norms authoring of scientific publications, 323­ 325 authoritarian control, 236; working around, 266­271 authorship, collaborative. See peer production autonomy, 8­9, 133­175, 464­465; culture and, 280­281; formal conception of, 140­141; independence of Web sites, 103; individual capabilities in, 20­22; information environment, structure of, 146­161; mass media and, 164­166 B92 radio, 266 Babel objection, 10, 12, 169­174, 233­ 235, 237­241, 465­466 backbone Web sites, 249­250, 258­260 background knowledge. See culture bad luck, justice and, 303­304 Bagdikian, Ben, 205 Baker, Edwin, 165, 203 Balkin, Jack, 15, 256, 276, 284, 294, 295 Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo, 243­246, 251 ´ ´´ Barbie (doll), culture of, 277, 285­289 Barlow, John Perry, 45 barriers to access. See access BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), 189 Beebe, Jack, 207 behavior: enforced with social software, 372­375; motivation to produce, 6, 92­99, 115; number and variety of options, 150­152, 170. See also autonomy Benabou, Roland, 94 benefit maximization, 42 Beniger, James, 187 Benjamin, Walter, 295, 296 Bennett, James Gordon, 188 Berlusconi effect, 201, 204, 220­225 bilateral trade negotiations. See trade policy BioForge platform, 343 bioinformatics, 351 BioMed Central, 324 biomedical research, commons-based, 344­353 BIOS initiative, 342­344 biotechnology, 332­338 blocked access: authoritarian control, 236, 266­271; autonomy and, 147­ 152, 170­171; influence exaction, 156, 158­159; large-audience programming, 197, 204­210, 259­260; mass media and, 197­199; policy routers, 147­149, 156, 197­198, 397 blogs, 216­217; Sinclair Broadcasting case study, 220­225; small-worlds effect, 252­253; as social software, 372­ 375; watchdog functionality, 262­264

Index

blood donation, 93 bots. See trespass to chattels bow tie structure of Web, 249­250 Bower, Chris, 221 boycott of Sinclair Broadcasting, 220­ 225 BoycottSBG.com site, 222­223, 225 Boyd, Dana, 368 Boyle, James, 25, 415, 446­447, 449, 487­488 branding: domain names and, 431­433; trademark dilution, 290, 446­448 bridging social relationships, 368 Bristol, Virginia, 406 broadband networks, 24­25; cable as commons, 399­401; concentration in access services, 240; market structure of, 152­153; municipal initiatives, 405­ 408; open wireless networks, 402­405; regulation of, 399­402. See also wired communications broadcast flag regulation, 410 broadcasting, radio. See radio broadcasting, toll, 194­195 Broder, Andrei, 249 browsers, 434­436 Bt cotton, 337­338 building on existing information, 37­39, 52 Bullock, William, 188 business decisions vs. editorial decisions, 204 business strategies for information production, 41­48 cable broadband transport, as commons, 399­401. See also broadband networks cacophony. See Babel objection; relevance filtering CAMBIA research institute, 342­344 capabilities of individuals, 20­22; coordinated effects of individual actions, 4­5; cultural shift, 284; economic condition and, 304; human capacity as resource, 52­55; as modality of production, 119­120; as physical capital, 99; technology and human affairs, 16­18. See also autonomy; nonmarket information producers capacity: diversity of content in largeaudience media, 197, 204­210, 259­ 260; human communication, 52­55, 99­106, 110; mass media limits on, 199; networked public sphere generation, 225­232; networked public sphere reaction, 220­225; opportunities created by social production, 123­126; policy routers, 147­149, 156, 197­198, 397; processing (computational), 81­82, 86; radio, sharing, 402­403; securing, 458; sharing, 81­89, 114­115, 157, 351­352; storage, 86; transaction costs, 112­115 capital for production, 6­7, 32; control of, 99; cost minimization and benefit maximization, 42; fixed and initial costs, 110; production costs as limiting, 164­165; transaction costs, 59­ 60. See also commons; social capital Carey, James, 131 carriage requirements of cable providers, 401 Castells, Manuel, 16, 18, 362 CBDPTA (Consumer Broadband and Digital Television Promotion Act), 409 Cejas, Rory, 134, 141­142 censorship, 268­270 centralization of communications, 62, 235, 237­241, 258­260; authoritarian filtering, 268; decentralization, 10­12, 62 CGIAR's GCP program, 341 Chakrabarti, Soumen, 251 Chandler, Alfred, 187 channels, transmission. See transport channel policy chaotic, Internet as, 237­241

Index

Chaplin, Charlie, 138 chat rooms, 269 Chinese agricultural research, 337­338 Chung, Minn, 267 Cisco policy routers, 147­149, 156, 197­ 198, 397; influence exaction, 156, 158­ 159 Clark, Dave, 412 Clarke, Ian, 269 click-wrap licenses, 444­446 clickworkers project (NASA), 69­70 clinical trials, peer-produced, 353 clusters in network topology, 12­13, 248­ 250, 253­256; bow tie structure of Web, 249­250; synthesis of public opinion, 184, 199. See also topology, network Coase, Ronald, 59, 87 Cohen, Julie, 416 Coleman, James, 95, 361 collaboration, open-source, 66­67 collaboration, traditional. See traditional model of communication collaborative authorship, 218; among universities, 338­341, 347­350; social software, 372­375. See also peer production collective social action, 22 commercial culture, production of, 295­ 296 commercial mass media: basic critiques of, 196­211; corrective effects of network environment, 220­225; as platform for public sphere, 178­180, 185­ 186, 198­199; structure of, 178­180. See also traditional model of communication commercial mass media, political freedom and, 176­211; criticisms, 196­211; design characteristics of liberal public sphere, 180­185 commercial model of communication, 4, 9, 22­28, 59­60, 383­459, 470­471; autonomy and, 164­166; barriers to justice, 302; emerging role of mass media, 178­180, 185­186, 198­199; enclosure movement, 380­382; mapping, framework for, 389­396; medical innovation and, 345­346; path dependency, 386­389; relationship with social producers, 122­127; security-related policy, 73­74, 396, 457­459; shift away from, 10­13; stakes of information policy, 460­473; structure of mass media, 178­180; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116. See also market-based information producers commercial press, 186­188, 202 commercialism, undermining political concern, 197, 204­210 common-carriage regulatory system, 160 commons, 24, 60­62, 129­132, 316­317; autonomy and, 144­146; cable providers as, 399­401; crispness of social exchange, 109; human welfare and development, 308­311; municipal broadband initiatives, 405­408; types of, 61­62; wireless communications as, 89, 152­154 commons, production through. See peer production commons-based research, 317­328, 354­ 355; food and agricultural innovation, 328­344; medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 344­353 communication: authoritarian control, working around, 266­271; capacity of, 52­55; feasibility conditions for social production, 99­106; pricing, 110; thickening of preexisting relations, 357; through performance, 205; transaction costs, 112­115; university alliances, 338­341, 347­350. See also wired communications; wireless communications

Index

communication diversity. See diversity communication tools, 215­219 communities: critical culture and selfreflection, 15­16, 70­74, 76, 112, 293­294; fragmentation of, 15, 234­ 235, 238, 256, 465­466; human and Internet, together, 375­377; immersive entertainment, 74, 135­136; municipal broadband initiatives, 405­408; open wireless networks, 402­405; as persons, 19­20; technology-defined social structure, 29­34; virtual, 348­ 361 community clusters. See clusters in network topology community regulation by social norms. See social relations and norms competition: communications infrastructure, 157­159; market and nonmarket producers, 122­123 computational capacity, 81­82, 86; transaction costs, 112­115 computer gaming environment, 74, 135­ 136 computers, 105; infrastructure ownership, 155; policy on physical devices, 408­412; as shareable, lumpy goods, 113­115 concentration in broadband access services, 240 concentration of mass-media power, 157, 197, 199­204, 235, 237­241; corrective effects of network environment, 220­ 225 concentration of Web attention, 241­261 connectivity, 86 constraints of information production, monetary, 6­7, 32; control of, 99; cost minimization and benefit maximization, 42; fixed and initial costs, 110; production costs as limiting, 164­ 165; transaction costs, 59­60. See also commons; social capital constraints of information production, physical, 3­4, 24­25. See also capital for production constraints on behavior. See autonomy; freedom consumer demand for information, 203 consumer surplus. See capacity, sharing consumerism, active vs. passive, 126­ 127, 135 contact, online vs. physical, 360­361 content layer of institutional ecology, 384, 392, 439­457, 469­470; copyright issues, 439­444; recent changes, 395 context, cultural. See culture contractual enclosure, 444­446 control of public sphere. See mass media controlling culture, 297­300 controversy, avoidance of, 205 cooperation gain, 88 cooperative production. See peer production coordinated effects of individual actions, 4­5. See also clusters in network topology; peer production copyleft, 65, 342 copyright issues, 277­278, 439­444. See also proprietary rights core Web sites, 249­250 cost: crispness of, 109­113; minimizing, 42; of production, as limiting, 164­ 165; proprietary models, 461­462; technologies, 462. See also capital for production creative capacity, 52­55; feasibility conditions for social production, 99­106; pricing, 110 Creative Commons initiative, 455 creativity, value of, 109­113 credibility, earning. See accreditation criminalization of copyright infringement, 441­442 crispness of currency exchange, 109­113

Index

critical culture and self-reflection, 15­16, 293­294; Open Directory Project, 76; self-identification as transaction cost, 112; Wikipedia project, 70­74 cultural production. See culture; information production culture, 273­300, 466­467; criticality of (self-reflection), 15­16, 70­74, 76, 112, 293­294; freedom of, 279­285, 297; influence exaction, 156, 158­159; as motivational context, 97; participatory, policies for, 297­300; security of context, 143­146; shaping perceptions of others, 147­152, 170, 220­225, 297­ 300; social exchange, crispness of, 109­ 113; of television, 135; transparency of, 285­294 daily newspapers, 40 dailyKos.com site, 221 data storage capacity, 86; transaction costs, 112­115 Database Directive, 449­450 database protection, 449­451; trespass to chattels, 451­453 Davis, Nick, 221­223, 245­246, 260 Dawkins, Richard, 284 de minimis digital sampling, 443­444 de Solla Price, Derek, 243 Dean, Howard, 258 decency. See social relations and norms decentralization of communications, 10­ 12, 62 Deci, Edward, 94 DeCSS program, 417 defining price, 109­113 demand for information, consumer, 203 demand-side effects of information production, 43, 45 democratic societies, 7­16, 177; autonomy, 8­9; critical culture and social relations, 15­16; independence of Web sites, 103; individual capabilities in, 20­22; justice and human devel- opment, 13­15; public sphere, shift from mass media, 10­13; shift from mass-media communications model, 10­13; social-democratic theories of justice, 308­311 democratizing effect of Internet, 213­214; critiques of claims of, 233­237 depression, 359­361 deregulation. See policy determinism, technological, 16­18 development, commons-based, 317­328, 354­355; food and agricultural innovation, 328­344; medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 344­353 devices (physical), policy regarding, 408­ 412. See also computers Diebold Election Systems, 225­232, 262, 389­390 digital copyright. See proprietary rights digital divide, 236­237 Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 380, 413­418 digital sampling, 443­444 dignity, 19 Dill, Stephen, 249­250 dilution of trademarks, 290, 446­448 discussion lists (electronic), 215 displacement of real-world interaction, 357, 362­366 distributed computing projects, 81­83 distributed filtering and accreditation, 171­172 distributed production. See peer production Distributed Proofreading site, 81 distribution lists (electronic), 215 distribution of information, 68­69, 80­ 81; power law distribution of site connections, 241­261; university-based innovation, 348­350 diversity, 164­169; appropriation strategies, 49; of behavioral options, 150­ 152, 170; changes in taste, 126; fragmentation of communication, 15, 234­

Index

235, 238, 256, 465­466; granularity of participation, 100­102, 113­114; human communication, 55­56; human motivation, 6; large-audience programming, 197, 204­210, 259­260; mass-mediated environments, 165­166; motivation to produce, 6, 92­99, 115. See also autonomy DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act), 380, 413­418 Doctors Without Borders, 347 domain name system, 429­434 Drezner, Daniel, 251, 255 drugs, commons-based research on, 344­ 353 DSL. See broadband networks dumb luck, justice and, 303­304 Dworkin, Gerard, 140 Dworkin, Ronald, 304, 307 dynamic inefficiency. See efficiency of information regulation Dyson, Esther, 45 e-mail, 215; thickening of preexisting relations, 363­366 eBay v. Bidder's Edge, 451­453 economic analysis, role of, 18 economic data, access to, 313­314 economic opportunity, 130­131 economics in liberal political theory, 19­ 20; cultural freedom, 279­285, 297 economics of information production and innovation, 35­58; current production strategies, 41­48; exclusive rights, 49­50, 56­58; production over computer networks, 50­56 economics of nonmarket production, 91­ 127; emergence in digital networks, 116­122; feasibility conditions, 99­106; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116. See also motivation to produce Edelman, Ben, 268 editorial filtering. See relevance filtering editorial vs. business decisions, 204 educational instruction, 314­315, 327 efficiency of information regulation, 36­ 41, 49­50, 106­116, 461­462; capacity reallocation, 114­116; property protections, 319; wireless communications policy, 154 Eisenstein, Elizabeth, 17 Eldred v. Ashcroft, 442 electronic voting machines (case study), 225­232, 262, 389­390 emergent order in networks. See clusters in network topology enclosure movement, 380­382 encryption, 457 encryption circumvention, 414­417 encyclopedic information, emergence of, 70. See also Wikipedia project enhanced autonomy. See autonomy entertainment industry: hardware regulation and, 409­412; immersive, 74, 135­136; peer-to-peer networks and, 425­428. See also music industry entitlement theory, 304 environmental criticism of GM foods, 334 equality. See justice and human development esteem. See intrinsic motivations ethic (journalistic) vs. business necessity, 197, 204­210 excess capacity, sharing, 81­89, 114­115, 157, 351­352 exclusivity. See also proprietary rights exercise of programming power, 197, 199­204; corrective effects of network environment, 220­225 existing information, building on, 37­ 39, 52 extrinsic motivations, 94­95 factual reporting, access to, 314 fair use in copyright, 440­441 family relations, strengthening of, 357, 362­366

Index

Fanning, Shawn, 84, 419 Farrell, Henry, 251, 255 FastTrack architecture, 420 FCC. See policy feasibility conditions for social production, 99­106 feedback and intake limits of mass media, 199 Feinberg, Joel, 140 Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Tel. Serv. Co., 449 Felten, Edward, 416 FHSST (Free High School Science Texts), 101, 326 Fightaids@home project, 82 file-sharing networks, 83­86, 418­428; security considerations, 457 filtering, 68, 75­80, 169­174, 183, 258­ 260; Amazon, 75; by authoritarian countries, 236; capacity for, by mass media, 199; concentration of massmedia power, 157, 197, 199­204, 235, 237­241; corrective effects of network environment, 220­225; as distributed system, 171­172; Google, 76; Open Directory Project (ODP), 76; as public good, 12; Slashdot, 76­80, 104; watchdog functionality, 236, 261­266 filtering by information provider. See blocked access financial reward, as demotivator, 94­96 fine-grained goods, 113 firms. See market-based information producers; traditional model of communication first-best preferences, mass media and: concentration of mass-media power, 157, 220­225, 235, 237­241; largeaudience programming, 197, 204­210, 259­260; power of mass media owners, 197, 199­204, 220­225 Fisher, William (Terry), 15, 123, 276, 293, 409 Fiske, John, 135, 275, 293 fixed costs, 110 Folding@home project, 82­83 folk culture. See culture food, commons-based research on, 328­ 329 food security, commons-based research on, 329­344 formal autonomy theory, 140­141 formal instruction, 314­315 fragmentation of communication, 15, 234­235, 238, 256, 465­466. See also social relations and norms Franklin, Benjamin, 187 Franks, Charles, 81, 137 Free High School Science Texts (FHSST), 101, 326 free software, 5, 46, 63­67; commonsbased welfare development, 320­ 323; as competition to market-based business, 123; human development and justice, 14; policy on, 436­437; project modularity and granularity, 102; security considerations, 457­ 458 free trade agreements. See trade policy freedom, 19, 129; behavioral options, 150­ 152, 170; of commons, 62; cultural, 279­285, 297; property and commons, 143­146 freedom as individuals. See autonomy freedom policy. See policy Freenet, 269­270 Frey, Bruno, 93­94 Friedman, Milton, 38 friendship as motivation. See intrinsic motivations friendships, virtual, 359­361 Friendster, 368 Froomkin, Michael, 412, 432 FTAs. See trade policy future: participatory culture, 297­300; public sphere, 271­272

Index

games, immersive, 74, 135­136 GCP (Generation Challenge Program), 341 GE (General Electric), 191, 195 General Public License (GPL), 63­65, 104. See also free software Generation Challenge Program (GCP), 341 genetically modified (GM) foods, 332­ 338 Genome@home project, 82 geographic community, strength of. See thickening of preexisting relations Ghosh, Rishab, 106 gifts, 116­117 Gilmore, Dan, 219, 262 Glance, Natalie, 248, 257 global development, 308­311, 355; food and agricultural innovation, 328­344; international harmonization, 453­455; medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 344­353 global injustice. See justice and human development GM (genetically modified) foods, 332­338 GNU/Linux operating system, 64­65 Gnutella, 420 Godelier, Maurice, 109, 116 golden rice, 339 goods, information-embedded, 311­312 Google, 76 Gould, Stephen Jay, 27 government: authoritarian control, 236, 266­271; independence from control of, 184, 197­198; role of, 20­22; working around authorities, 266­271. See also policy GPL (General Public License), 63­65, 104. See also free software Gramsci, Antonio, 280 Granovetter, Mark, 95, 360, 361 granularity, 100­102; of lumpy goods, 113­114 Green Revolution, 331­332 Grokster, 421 growth rates of Web sites, 244, 246­247 gTLD-MoU document, 431 Habermas, Jurgen, 181, 184, 205, 281, 412 The Halloween Memo, 123 Hampton, Keith, 363 handhelds. See computers; mobile phones HapMap Project, 351 hardware, 105; infrastructure ownership, 155; policy on physical devices, 408­ 412; as shareable, lumpy goods, 113­ 115 hardware regulations, 408­412 harmonization, international, 453­455 Harris, Bev, 227, 228, 231 Hart, Michael, 80­81, 137 Hayek, Friedrich, 20, 143 HDI (Human Development Index), 309­ 310 health effects of GM foods, 334 Hearst, William Randolph, 203 Heller, Michael, 312 HHI (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index), 202 hierarchical organizations. See traditional model of communication high-production value content, 167­169, 294­297. See also accreditation HIV/AIDS, 319, 328­329, 344­345; Genome home project, 82 Holiday, Billie, 273 Hollings, Fritz, 409­410 Hollywood. See entertainment industry Hoover, Herbert, 192­194 Hopkins Report, 229 Horner, Mark, 101 Huberman, Bernardo, 243­244, 246­247 human affairs, technology and, 16­18

Index

human communicative capacity, 52­55; feasibility conditions for social production, 99­106; pricing, 110 human community, coexisting with Internet, 375­377 human contact, online vs. physical, 360­ 361 human development and justice, 13­15, 301­355, 467­468; commons-based research, 317­328; commons-based strategies, 308­311; liberal theories of, 303­308. See also welfare Human Development Index (HDI), 309­ 310 Human Development Report, 309 human freedom. See freedom human motivation, 6, 92­99; crowding out theory, 115; cultural context of, 97; granularity of participation and, 100­102, 113­114 human welfare, 130­131; commons-based research, 317­328; commons-based strategies, 308­311; digital divide, 236­ 237; freedom from constraint, 157­158; information-based advantages, 311­315; liberal theories of justice, 303­308. See also justice and human development Hundt, Reed, 222 hyperlinking on the Web, 218; power law distribution of site connections, 241­261; as trespass, 451­453 IAHC (International Ad Hoc Committee), 430­431 IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority), 430 IBM's business strategy, 46­47, 123­124 ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), 431­ 432 iconic representations of opinion, 205, 209­210 ideal market, 62­63 immersive entertainment, 74, 135­136 implicit knowledge, transfer of, 314­315 incentives of exclusive rights. See proprietary rights incentives to produce, 6, 92­99; crowding out theory, 115; cultural context of, 97; granularity of participation and, 100­102, 113­114 independence from government control, 184, 197­198 independence of Web sites, 103 individual autonomy, 8­9, 133­175, 464­ 465; culture and, 280­281; formal conception of, 140­141; independence of Web sites, 103; individual capabilities in, 20­22; information environment, structure of, 146­161; mass media and, 164­166 individual capabilities and action, 20­22; coordinated effects of individual actions, 4­5; cultural shift, 284; economic condition and, 304; human capacity as resource, 52­55; as modality of production, 119­120; as physical capital, 99; technology and human affairs, 16­18. See also autonomy; nonmarket information producers individualist methodologies, 18 industrial age: destabilization of, 32; reduction of individual autonomy, 137­ 138 industrial model of communication, 4, 9, 22­28, 59­60, 383­459, 470­471; autonomy and, 164­166; barriers to justice, 302; emerging role of mass media, 178­180, 185­186, 198­199; enclosure movement, 380­382; information industries, 315­317; mapping, framework for, 389­396; medical innovation and, 345­346; path dependency, 386­389; relationship with social producers, 122­127; securityrelated policy, 73­74, 396, 457­459; shift away from, 10­13; stakes of in-

Index

formation policy, 460­473; structure of mass media, 178­180; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116. See also marketbased information producers inefficiency of information regulation, 36­41, 49­50, 106­116, 461­462; capacity reallocation, 114­116; property protections, 319; wireless communications policy, 154 inertness, political, 197, 204­210 influence exaction, 156, 158­159 information, defined, 31, 313­314 information, perfect, 203 information appropriation strategies, 49 information as nonrival, 36­39 information economy, 2­34; democracy and liberalism, 7­16; effects on public sphere, 219­233; emergence of, 2­ 7; institutional ecology, 22­28; justice, liberal theories of, 303­308; methodological choices, 16­22 information-embedded goods, 311­312 information-embedded tools, 312 information flow, 12; controlling with policy routers, 147­149, 156, 197­198, 397; large-audience programming, 197, 204­210, 259­260; limited by mass media, 197­199 information industries, 315­317 information laws. See policy information licensing and ownership. See also proprietary rights information overload and Babel objection, 10, 12, 169­174, 233­235, 237­ 241, 465­466 information production, 464; feasibility conditions for social production, 99­ 106; networked public sphere capacity for, 225­232; nonrivalry, 36­39, 85­ 86; physical constraints on, 3­4; strategies of, 41­48. See also distribution of information; peer production information production, market-based: cultural change, transparency of, 290­ 293; mass popular culture, 295­296; relationship with social producers, 122­127; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116; universities as, 347­348; without property protections, 39­41, 45­48 information production, models of. See traditional model of communication information production, nonmarketbased. See entries at nonmarket production information production capital, 6­7, 32; control of, 99; cost minimization and benefit maximization, 42; fixed and initial costs, 110; production costs as limiting, 164­165; transaction costs, 59­60. See also commons; social capital information production economics, 35­ 58; current production strategies, 41­ 48; exclusive rights, 49­50, 56­58; production over computer networks, 50­56 information production efficiency. See efficiency of information regulation information production inputs, 68­75; existing information, 37­39, 52; immersive entertainment, 74­75; individual action as modality, 119­120; large-audience programming, 197, 204­210, 259­260; limited by mass media, 197­199; NASA Clickworkers project, 69­70; pricing, 109­113; propaganda, 149­150, 220­225, 297­ 300; systematically blocked by policy routers, 147­149, 156, 197­198, 397; universal intake, 182, 197­199; Wikipedia project, 70­74. See also collaborative authorship information sharing. See sharing information storage capacity, 86; transaction costs, 112­115 infrastructure ownership, 155 initial costs, 110

Index

injustice. See justice and human development Innis, Harold, 17 innovation: agricultural, commonsbased, 329­344; human development, 14; software patents and, 437­439; wireless communications policy, 154 innovation economics, 35­58; current production strategies, 41­48; exclusive rights, 49­50, 56­58; production over computer networks, 50­56 innovation efficiency. See efficiency of information regulation inputs to production, 68­75; existing information, 37­39, 52; immersive entertainment, 74­75; individual action as modality, 119­120; large-audience programming, 197, 204­210, 259­260; limited by mass media, 197­199; NASA Clickworkers project, 69­70; pricing, 109­113; propaganda, 149­ 150, 220­225, 297­300; systematically blocked by policy routers, 147­149, 156, 197­198, 397; universal intake, 182, 197­199; Wikipedia project, 70­ 74. See also collaborative authorship instant messaging, 365 Institute for One World Health, 350 institutional ecology of digital environment, 4, 9, 22­28, 59­60, 383­459, 470­471; autonomy and, 164­166; barriers to justice, 302; emerging role of mass media, 178­180, 185­186, 198­ 199; enclosure movement, 380­382; mapping, framework for, 389­396; medical innovation and, 345­346; path dependency, 386­389; relationship with social producers, 122­127; security-related policy, 73­74, 396, 457­459; shift away from, 10­13; stakes of information policy, 460­473; structure of mass media, 178­180; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116. See also market-based information producers intellectual property. See proprietary rights interaction, social. See social relations and norms interest communities. See clusters in network topology interlinking. See topology, network International HapMap Project, 351 international harmonization, 453­455 Internet: authoritarian control over, 266­271; centralization of, 235, 237­ 241; coexisting with human community, 375­377; democratizing effect of, 213­214, 233­237; globality of, effects on policy, 396; linking as trespass, 451­453; plasticity of culture, 294­297, 299; as platform for human connection, 369­372; power law distribution of site connections, 241­261; strongly connected Web sites, 249­ 250; technologies of, 215­219; transparency of culture, 285­294; Web addresses, 429­434; Web browsers, 434­ 436 Internet Explorer browser, 434­436 Internet usage patterns. See social relations and norms intrinsic motivations, 94­99. See also motivation to produce Introna, Lucas, 261 isolation, 359­361 Jackson, Jesse, 264 The Jedi Saga, 134 Jefferson, Richard, 342 Joe Einstein model, 43, 47­48, 315 Johanson, Jon, 417 journalism, undermined by commercialism, 197, 204­210 judgment of relevance. See relevance filtering justice and human development, 13­15, 301­355, 467­468; commons-based research, 317­328; commons-based strat-

Index

egies, 308­311; liberal theories of, 303­ 308 Kant, Immanuel, 143 karma (Slashdot), 78 KaZaa, 421 KDKA Pittsburgh, 190, 191 Keillor, Garrison, 243 Kick, Russ, 103, 259­260 Know-How model, 45­46 knowledge, defined, 314­315 Koren, Niva Elkin, 15 Kottke, Jason, 252 Kraut, Robert, 360, 363 Kumar, Ravi, 253 Kymlicka, Will, 281 laboratories, peer-produced, 352­353 Lakhani, Karim, 106 Lange, David, 25 large-audience programming, 197, 204­ 210; susceptibility of networked public sphere, 259­260 large-circulation presses, 187­188 large-grained goods, 113­114 large-scale peer cooperation. See peer production last mile (wireless), 402­405 laws. See policy layers of institutional ecology, 384, 389­ 396, 469­470; content layer, 384, 392, 395, 439­457, 469­470; physical layer, 392, 469­470. See also logical layer of institutional ecology learning networks, 43, 46, 112 Lemley, Mark, 399, 445 Lerner, Josh, 39, 106 Lessig, Lawrence (Larry), 15, 25, 239, 276, 278, 385, 399 liberal political theory, 19­20; cultural freedom, 278­285, 297 liberal societies, 7­16; autonomy, 8­9; critical culture and social relations, 15­ 16; design of public sphere, 180­185; justice and human development, 13­ 15; public sphere, shift from mass media, 10­13; theories of justice, 303­ 308 licensing: agricultural biotechnologies, 338­344; GPL (General Public License), 63­65, 104; radio, 191­194; shrink-wrap (contractual enclosure), 444­446. See also proprietary rights limited-access common resources, 61 limited intake of mass media, 197­199 limited sharing networks, 43, 48 Lin, Nan, 95 Linden Labs. See Second Life game environment linking on the Web, 218; power law distribution of site connections, 241­261; as trespass, 451­453 Linux operating system, 65­66 Litman, Jessica, 25, 33, 278, 439 local clusters in network topology, 12­ 13. See also clusters in network topology logical layer of institutional ecology, 384, 392, 412­439, 469; database protection, 449­451; DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act), 380, 413­ 418; domain name system, 429­434; free software policies, 436­437; international harmonization, 453­455; peerto-peer networks, 83­86, 418­428, 457; recent changes, 395; trademark dilution, 290, 446­448; Web browsers, 434­436 loneliness, 359­361 loose affiliations, 9, 357, 362, 366­369 Los Alamos model, 43, 48 Lott, Trent, 258, 263­264 lowest-common-denominator programming, 197, 204­210, 259­260 Lucas, George, 134 luck, justice and, 303­304 lumpy goods, 113­115 Luther, Martin, 27

Index

machinery. See computers mailing lists (electronic), 215 management, changing relationships of, 124­126 Mangabeira Unger, Roberto, 138 manipulating perceptions of others, 147­ 152, 170; influence exaction, 156, 158­ 159; with propaganda, 149­150, 220­ 225, 297­300 mapping utterances. See relevance filtering Marconi, 191 market-based information producers: cultural change, transparency of, 290­ 293; mass popular culture, 295­296; relationship with social producers, 122­ 127; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116; universities as, 347­348; without property protections, 39­41, 45­48 market reports, access to, 314 market transactions, 107­109 Marshall, Josh, 221, 222, 246, 263 Marx, Karl, 143, 279 mass media: basic critiques of, 196­211; corrective effects of network environment, 220­225; as platform for public sphere, 178­180, 185­186, 198­199; structure of, 178­180. See also traditional model of communication mass media, political freedom and, 176­ 211; commercial platform for public sphere, 178­180, 185­186, 198­199; criticisms, 196­211; design characteristics of liberal public sphere, 180­185 massive multiplayer games, 74, 135­136 maximizing viewers as business necessity. See large-audience programming McChesney, Robert, 196 McHenry, Robert, 71 McLuhan, Marshall, 16, 17 McVeigh, Timothy (sailor), 367 Medecins San Frontieres, 347 ´ ` media concentration, 157, 235, 237­241; corrective effects of network environ- ment, 220­225. See also power of mass media owners medicines, commons-based research on, 344­353 medium-grained goods, 113 medium of exchange, 109­113 Meetup.com site, 368 The Memory Hole, 103 metamoderation (Slashdot), 79 methodological individualism, 18 Mickey model, 42­44 Microsoft Corporation: browser wars, 434­436; sidewalk.com, 452 Milgram, Stanley, 252 misfortune, justice and, 303­304 MIT's Open Courseware Initiative, 314­ 315, 327 MMOGs (massive multiplayer online games), 74, 135­136 mobile phones, 219, 367; open wireless networks, 402­405 moderation of content. See accreditation modularity, 100­103 Moglen, Eben, 5, 55, 426 monetary constraints on information production, 6­7, 32; control of, 99; cost minimization and benefit maximization, 42; fixed and initial costs, 110; production costs as limiting, 164­ 165; transaction costs, 59­60. See also commons; social capital money: centralization of communications, 258­260; cost minimization and benefit maximization, 42; cost of production as limiting, 164­165; crispness of currency exchange, 109­ 113; as demotivator, 94­96; as dominant factor, 234. See also capital for production monitoring, authoritarian, 236 monopoly: authoritarian control, 266­271; breadth of programming under, 207; medical research and innovation, 345­346; radio broadcast-

Index

ing, 189, 195; wired environment as, 152­153 Moore, Michael, 200 motivation to produce, 6, 92­99; crowding out theory, 115; cultural context of, 97; granularity of participation and, 100­102, 113­114 Moulitsas, Markos, 221 movie industry. See entertainment industry MP3.com, 419, 422­423 MSF (Medecins San Frontieres), 347 ´ ` Mumford, Lewis, 16 municipal broadband initiatives, 405­ 408 Murdoch, Rupert, 203 music industry, 50­51, 425­427; digital sampling, 443­444; DMCA violations, 416; peer-to-peer networks and, 84 MyDD.com site, 221 Napster, 419. See also peer-to-peer networks NASA Clickworkers, 69­70 NBC (National Broadcasting Company), 195 Negroponte, Nicholas, 238 neighborhood relations, strengthening of, 357, 362­366 Nelson, W. R., 205 Netanel, Neil, 236, 261, 261­262 Netscape and browser wars, 435 network topology, 172­173; autonomy and, 146­161; emergent ordered structure, 253­256; linking as trespass, 451­ 453; moderately linked sites, 251­252; peer-to-peer networks, 83­86, 418­ 428, 457; power law distribution of site connections, 241­261; quoting on Web, 218; repeater networks, 88­89; strongly connected Web sites, 249­ 250. See also clusters in network topology networked environment policy. See policy networked information economy, 2­34; democracy and liberalism, 7­16; effects on public sphere, 219­233; emergence of, 2­7; institutional ecology, 22­28; justice, liberal theories of, 303­ 308; methodological choices, 16­22 networked public sphere, 10­12, 212­ 271, 465; authoritarian control, working around, 266­271; basic communication tools, 215­219; critiques that Internet democratizes, 233­237; defined, 177­178; Diebold Election Systems case study, 225­232, 262, 389­ 390; future of, 271­272; Internet as concentrated vs. chaotic, 237­241; liberal, design characteristics of, 180­185; loose affiliations, 9, 357, 362, 366­369; mass-media platform for, 178­180, 185­186, 198­199; topology and connectivity of, 241­261; transparency of Internet culture, 285­294; watchdog functionality, 236, 261­266. See also social relations and norms networked society, 376 news (as data), 314 newspapers, 40, 186­188; market concentration, 202 Newton, Isaac, 37 niche markets, 56 NIH (National Institutes of Health), 324 Nissenbaum, Helen, 261 No Electronic Theft (NET) Act, 441­ 442 Noam, Eli, 201­202, 238­239 nonexclusion-market production strategies, 39­41, 45­48 nonmarket information producers, 4­5, 39­40; conditions for production, 99­ 106; cultural change, transparency of, 290­293; emergence of social production, 116­122; relationship with

Index

nonmarket information producers (cont.) market-based businesses, 122­127; role of, 18­19; strategies for information production, 43, 47­48; universities as, 347­348 nonmarket production, economics of, 91­127; emergence in digital networks, 116­122; feasibility conditions, 99­106; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­ 116. See also motivation to produce nonmarket strategies, effectiveness of, 54­ 56 nonmonetary motivations. See motivation to produce nonprofit medical research, 350 nonrival goods, 36­39; peer-to-peer networks sharing, 85­86 norms (social), 72­74, 356­377; enforced norms with software, 372­375; fragmentation of communication, 15, 234­235, 238, 256, 465­466; Internet and human coexistence, 375­377; Internet as platform for, 369­372; loose affiliations, 9, 357, 362, 366­369; motivation within, 92­94; property, commons, and autonomy, 143­146; Slashdot mechanisms for, 78; software for, emergence of, 372­375; technology-defined structure, 29­34; thickening of preexisting relations, 357; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116; working with social expectations, 366­ 369 Nozick, Robert, 304 NSI (Network Solutions, Inc.), 430 number of behavioral options, 150­152, 170 OAIster protocol, 326 obscurity of some Web sites, 246, 251­ 252 ODP (Open Directory Project), 76 older Web sites, obscurity of, 246 "on the shoulders of giants", 37­39 One World Health, 350 Open Archives Initiative, 326 open commons, 61 Open Courseware Initiative (MIT), 314­ 315, 327 Open Directory Project (ODP), 76 open-source software, 5, 46, 63­67; commons-based welfare development, 320­323; as competition to marketbased business, 123; human development and justice, 14; policy on, 436­ 437; project modularity and granularity, 102; security considerations, 457­458 open wireless networks, 402­405; municipal broadband initiatives, 405­408; security, 457 opinion, public: iconic representations of, 205, 209­210; synthesis of, 184, 199. See also accreditation; relevance filtering opportunities created by social production, 123­126 options, behavioral, 150­152, 170 order, emergent. See clusters in network topology organization structure, 100­106; granularity, 100­102, 113­114; justice and, 303­304; modularity, 100­103 organizational clustering, 248­249 organizations as persons, 19­20 organized production, traditional. See traditional model of communication OSTG (Open Source Technology Group), 77 Ostrom, Elinor, 144 owners of mass media, power of, 197, 199­204; corrective effects of network environment, 220­225 ownership of information. See also proprietary rights p2p networks, 83­86, 418­428; security considerations, 457

Index

packet filtering. See blocked access Pantic, Drazen, 219 Pareto, Vilfredo, 243 participatory culture, 297­300. See also culture passive vs. active consumers, 126­127, 135 patents. See proprietary rights path dependency, 388­389 patterns of Internet use. See social relations and norms peer production, 5, 33, 59­90, 462­464; drug research and development, 351; electronic voting machines (case study), 225­232; feasibility conditions for social production, 99­106; loose affiliations, 9, 357, 362, 366­369; maintenance of cooperation, 104; as platform for human connection, 374­ 375; relationship with market-based businesses, 122­127; sustainability of, 106­116; watchdog functionality, 236, 261­266. See also sharing peer production, order emerging from. See accreditation; relevance filtering peer review of scientific publications, 323­325 peer-to-peer networks, 83­86, 418­428; security considerations, 457 Pennock, David, 251 perceptions of others, shaping, 147­152, 170; influence exaction, 156, 158­159; with propaganda, 149­150, 220­225, 297­300 perfect information, 203 performance as means of communication, 205 permission to communicate, 155 permissions. See proprietary rights personal computers, 105; infrastructure ownership, 155; policy on physical devices, 408­412; as shareable, lumpy goods, 113­115 Pew studies, 364­365, 423 pharmaceuticals, commons-based research on, 344­353 Philadelphia, wireless initiatives in, 406­ 408 physical capital for production, 6­7, 32, 384, 396­412; control of, 99; cost minimization and benefit maximization, 42; fixed and initial costs, 110; production costs as limiting, 164­165; transaction costs, 59­60. See also commons; social capital physical constraints on information production, 3­4, 24­25. See also capital for production physical contact, diminishment of, 360­ 361 physical layer of institutional ecology, 392, 469­470; recent changes, 395 physical machinery and computers, 105; infrastructure ownership, 155; policy on physical devices, 408­412; as shareable, lumpy goods, 113­115 Piore, Michael, 138 PIPRA (Public Intellectual Property for Agriculture), 338­341 planned modularization, 101­102 plasticity of Internet culture, 294­297, 299 PLoS (Public Library of Science), 324 polarization, 235, 256­258 policy, 26, 383­459; authoritarian control, 266­271; commons-based research, 317­328; Diebold Election Systems case study, 225­232, 262, 389­ 390; enclosure movement, 380­382; global Internet and, 396; independence from government control, 184, 197­198; international harmonization, 453­455; liberal theories of justice, 305­ 307; mapping institutional ecology, 389­396; participatory culture, 297­ 300; path dependency, 386­389; pharmaceutical innovation, 345­346; property-based, 159­160; proprietary

Index

policy (continued ) rights vs. justice, 302­303; securityrelated, 73­74, 396, 457­459; stakes of, 460­473; wireless spectrum rights, 87. See also privatization; proprietary rights policy, global. See global development policy, social. See social relations and norms policy efficiency. See efficiency of information regulation policy layers, 384, 389­396, 469­470; content layer, 384, 392, 395, 439­457, 469­470; physical layer, 392, 469­ 470. See also logical layer of institutional ecology policy routers, 147­149, 156, 197­198, 397; influence exaction, 156, 158­159 political concern, undermined by commercialism, 197, 204­210 political freedom, mass media and, 176­ 211; commercial platform for public sphere, 178­180, 185­186, 198­199; criticisms, 196­211; design characteristics of liberal public sphere, 180­185 political freedom, public sphere and, 212­271; authoritarian control, working around, 266­271; basic communication tools, 215­219; critiques that Internet democratizes, 233­237; future of, 271­272; Internet as concentrated vs. chaotic, 237­241; topology and connectivity of, 241­261; watchdog functionality, 236, 261­266. See also networked information economy politics. See policy Pool, Ithiel de Sola, 388 popular culture, commercial production of, 295­296 Post, Robert, 140 Postel, Jon, 430 Postman, Neil, 186 poverty. See justice and human development; welfare Powell, Walter, 112 power law distribution of Web connections, 241­261; strongly connected Web sites, 249­250; uniform component of moderate connectivity, 251­ 252 power of mass media owners, 197, 199­ 204; corrective effects of network environment, 220­225 preexisting relations, thickening of, 357 press, commercial, 186­188, 202 price compensation, as demotivator, 94­ 96 pricing, 109­113 Pringle, Peter, 335 print media, commercial, 186­188 private communications, 177 privatization: agricultural biotechnologies, 335­336; of communications and information systems, 152­154, 159­160 ProCD v. Zeidenberg, 445 processing capacity, 81­82, 86 processors. See computers producer surplus, 157 production capital, 6­7, 32; control of, 99; cost minimization and benefit maximization, 42; fixed and initial costs, 110; production costs as limiting, 164­165; transaction costs, 59­ 60. See also commons; social capital production inputs, 68­75; existing information, 37­39, 52; immersive entertainment, 74­75; individual action as modality, 119­120; large-audience programming, 197, 204­210, 259­ 260; limited by mass media, 197­ 199; NASA Clickworkers project, 69­70; pricing, 109­113; propaganda, 149­150, 220­225, 297­300; systematically blocked by policy routers, 147­ 149, 156, 197­198, 397; universal intake, 182, 197­199; Wikipedia project, 70­74. See also collaborative authorship

Index

production of information, 464; feasibility conditions for social production, 99­106; networked public sphere capacity for, 225­232; nonrivalry, 36­39, 85­86; physical constraints on, 3­4; strategies of, 41­48. See also distribution of information; peer production production of information, efficiency of. See efficiency of information regulation production of information, industrial model of. See traditional model of communication production of information, nonmarket. See nonmarket information producers professionalism, mass media, 198
Project Gutenberg, 80­81, 136 propaganda, 149­150; manipulating culture, 297­300; Stolen Honor documentary, 220­225 property ownership, 23­27, 129­132; autonomy and, 143­146; control over, as asymmetric, 60­61; effects of exclusive rights, 49­50; trade policy, 319. See also commons; proprietary rights property ownership, efficiency of. See efficiency of information regulation proprietary rights, 22­28, 56­58; agricultural biotechnologies, 335­336, 338­ 344; commons-based research, 317­ 328; contractual enclosure, 444­446; copyright issues, 439­444; cultural environment and, 277­278; database protection, 449­451; Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 380, 413­418; domain names, 431­433; dominance of, overstated, 460­461; effects of, 49­50; enclosure movement, 380­382; global welfare and research, 317­320, 354­355; informationembedded goods and tools, 311­312; infrastructure ownership, 155; international harmonization, 453­455; justice vs., 302­303; medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 345­346; models of, 42­45; openness of personal computers, 409; peer-to-peer networks and, 84­85; radio patents, 191, 194; scientific publication, 323­325; software patenting, 437­439; strategies for information production, 41­48; trademark dilution, 290, 446­448; trespass to chattels, 451­453; university alliances, 338­341; wireless networks, 87, 153­154. See also access proprietary rights, inefficiency of, 36­41, 49­50, 106­116, 461­462; capacity reallocation, 114­116; property protections, 319; wireless communications policy, 154 psychological motivation. See motivation to produce public-domain data, 313­314 public goods vs. nonrival goods, 36­39 Public Library of Science (PLoS), 324 public opinion: iconic representations of, 205, 209­210; synthesis of, 184, 199. See also accreditation; relevance filtering public sphere, 10­12, 212­271, 465; authoritarian control, working around, 266­271; basic communication tools, 215­219; critiques that Internet democratizes, 233­237; defined, 177­ 178; Diebold Election Systems case study, 225­232, 262, 389­390; future of, 271­272; Internet as concentrated vs. chaotic, 237­241; liberal, design characteristics of, 180­185; loose affiliations, 9, 357, 362, 366­369; massmedia platform for, 178­180, 185­186, 198­199; topology and connectivity of, 241­261; transparency of Internet culture, 285­294; watchdog functionality, 236, 261­266 public sphere economy. See networked information economy

Index

public sphere relationships. See social relations and norms publication, scientific, 313, 323­328 Putnam, Robert, 362 quality of information. See accreditation; high-production value content; relevance filtering quoting on Web, 218 radio, 186­196, 387­388, 402­403; market concentration, 202; patents, 191, 194; as platform for human connection, 369; as public sphere platform, 190. See also wireless communications Radio Act of 1927, 196 Radio B92, 266 radio telephony, 194 raw data, 313­314; database protection, 449­451 raw materials of information. See inputs to production Rawls, John, 184, 279, 303­304, 306 Raymond, Eric, 66, 137, 259 Raz, Joseph, 140 RCA (Radio Corporation of America), 191, 195 RCA strategy, 43, 44 reallocating excess capacity, 81­89, 114­ 115, 157, 351­352 recognition. See intrinsic motivations redistribution theory, 304 referencing on the Web, 218; linking as trespass, 451­453; power law distribution of Web site connections, 241­261 regional clusters in network topology, 12­ 13. See also clusters in network topology regions of interest. See clusters in network topology regulated commons, 61 regulating information, efficiency of, 36­ 41, 49­50, 106­116, 461­462; capacity reallocation, 114­116; property protections, 319; wireless communications policy, 154 regulation. See policy regulation by social norms, 72­74, 356­ 377; enforced norms with software, 372­375; fragmentation of communication, 15, 234­235, 238, 256, 465­466; Internet and human coexistence, 375­ 377; Internet as platform for, 369­372; loose affiliations, 9, 357, 362, 366­369; motivation within, 92­94; property, commons, and autonomy, 143­146; Slashdot mechanisms for, 78; software for, emergence of, 372­375; technology-defined structure, 29­34; thickening of preexisting relations, 357; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116; working with social expectations, 366­ 369 Reichman, Jerome, 449 relationships, social. See social relations and norms relevance filtering, 68, 75­80, 169­174, 183, 258­260; Amazon, 75; by authoritarian countries, 236; capacity for, by mass media, 199; concentration of mass-media power, 157, 220­225, 235, 237­241; as distributed system, 171­ 172; Google, 76; Open Directory Project (ODP), 76; power of mass media owners, 197, 199­204, 220­225; as public good, 12; Slashdot, 76­80, 104; watchdog functionality, 236, 261­ 266 relevance filtering by information providers. See blocked access repeater networks, 88­89 research, commons-based, 317­328, 354­ 355; food and agricultural innovation, 328­344; medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 344­353 resource sharing. See capacity, sharing

Index

resources, common. See commons responsive communications, 199 reuse of information, 37­39, 52 reward. See motivation to produce Reynolds, Glenn, 264 Rheingold, Howard, 219, 265, 358­ 359 RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America), 416 right to read, 439­440 rights. See proprietary rights Romantic Maximizer model, 42­43 Rose, Carol, 61 routers, controlling information flow with, 147­149, 156, 197­198, 397; influence exaction, 156, 158­159 Rubin, Aviel, 228, 229 Sabel, Charles, 62, 111, 138 Saltzer, Jerome, 399 sampling, digital (music), 443­444 Samuelson, Pamela, 25, 414, 488 Sarnoff, David, 195 SBG (Sinclair Broadcast Group), 199­ 200, 220­225 Scholarly Lawyers model, 43, 45 scientific data, access to, 313­314 scientific publication, 313; commonsbased welfare development, 323­328 scope of loose relationships, 9, 357 Scott, William, 353 Second Life game environment, 74­75, 136 security of context, 143­146 security-related policy, 396, 457­459; vandalism on Wikipedia, 73­74 Security Systems Standards and Certification Act, 409 self-archiving of scientific publications, 325­326 self-determinism, extrinsic motivation and, 94 self-direction. See autonomy self-esteem, extrinsic motivation and, 94 self-organization. See clusters in network topology self-reflection, 15­16, 293­294; Open Directory Project, 76; selfidentification as transaction cost, 112; Wikipedia project, 70­74 services, software, 322­323 SETI@home project, 81­83 shaping perceptions of others, 147­152, 170; influence exaction, 156, 158­159; with propaganda, 149­150, 220­225, 297­300 Shapiro, Carl, 312 shareable goods, 113­115 sharing, 59­90, 81­89; emergence of social production, 116­122; excess capacity, 81­89, 114­115, 157, 351­352; limited sharing networks, 43, 48; open wireless networks, 402­405; radio capacity, 402­403; technologydependence of, 120; university patents, 347­350 sharing peer-to-peer. See peer-to-peer networks Shirky, Clay, 173, 252, 368, 373 "shoulders of giants", 37­39 shrink-wrap licenses, 444­446 sidewalk.com, 452 Simon, Herbert, 243 Sinclair Broadcast Group (SBG), 199­ 200, 220­225 Skype utility, 86, 421 Slashdot, 76­80, 104 small-worlds effect, 252­253 SMS (short message service). See text messaging social action, 22 social capital, 95­96, 361­369; networked society, 366­369; thickening of preexisting relations, 363­366 social clustering, 248­249

Index

social-democratic theories of justice, 308­ 311 social motivation. See intrinsic motivations social production, relationship with market-based businesses, 122­127 social relations and norms, 72­74, 356­ 377; enforced norms with software, 372­375; fragmentation of communication, 15, 234­235, 238, 256, 465­466; Internet and human coexistence, 375­ 377; Internet as platform for, 369­372; loose affiliations, 9, 357, 362, 366­369; motivation within, 92­94; property, commons, and autonomy, 143­146; Slashdot mechanisms for, 78; software for, emergence of, 372­375; technology-defined structure, 29­34; thickening of preexisting relations, 357; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116; working with social expectations, 366­ 369 social software, 372­375 social structure, defined by technology, 29­34 societal culture. See culture software: commons-based welfare development, 320­323; patents for, 437­ 439; social, 372­375 software, open-source, 5, 46, 63­67; commons-based welfare development, 320­323; as competition to marketbased business, 123; human development and justice, 14; policy on, 436­ 437; project modularity and granularity, 102; security considerations, 457­458 Solum, Lawrence, 267 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998, 442­443, 454 specificity of price, 109­113 spectrum property rights, 87. See also proprietary rights spiders. See trespass to chattels Spielberg, Steven, 416 stakes of information policy, 460­473 Stallman, Richard, 5, 64­66 standardizing creativity, 109­113 Starr, Paul, 17, 388 state, role of, 20­22 static inefficiency. See efficiency of information regulation static Web pages, 216 Steiner, Peter, 205 Stolen Honor documentary, 220­225 storage capacity, 86; transaction costs, 112­115 strategies for information production, 41­ 48; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116 Strogatz, Steven, 252 strongly connected Web sites, 249­250 structure of mass media, 178­180 structure of network, 172­173; autonomy and, 146­161; emergent ordered structure, 253­256; linking as trespass, 451­453; moderately linked sites, 251­ 252; peer-to-peer networks, 83­86, 418­ 428, 457; power law distribution of Web site connections, 241­261; quoting on Web, 218; repeater networks, 88­89; strongly connected Web sites, 249­250. See also clusters in network topology structure of networks. See network topology structure of organizations, 100­106; granularity, 100­102, 113­114; justice and, 303­304; modularity, 100­103 structured production, 100­106; granularity, 100­102, 113­114; maintenance of cooperation, 104; modularity, 100­ 103 Sunstein, Cass, 234 supercomputers, 81­82 supplantation of real-world interaction, 357, 362­366

Index

supply-side effects of information production, 45­46 sustainability of peer production, 106­116 symmetric commons, 61­62 Syngenta, 337 synthesis of public opinion, 184, 199. See also accreditation TalkingPoints site, 221 taste, changes in, 126 Taylor, Fredrick, 138 teaching materials, 326 technology, 215­219; agricultural, 335­ 344; costs of, 462; dependence on, for sharing, 120; effectiveness of nonmarket strategies, 54­55; enabling social sharing as production modality, 120­122; role of, 16­18; social software, 372­375; social structure defined by, 29­34 telephone, as platform for human connection, 371 television, 186; culture of, 135; Internet use vs., 360, 364; large-audience programming, 197, 204­210, 259­260; market concentration, 202 tendrils (Web topology), 249­250 term of copyright, 442­443, 454 text distribution as platform for human connection, 369 text messaging, 219, 365, 367 textbooks, 326 thickening of preexisting relations, 357, 362­366 thinness of online relations, 360 Thurmond, Strom, 263 Ticketmaster, 452 Tirole, Jean, 94, 106 Titmuss, Richard, 93 de Tocqueville, Alexis, 187 toll broadcasting, 194­195 too much information. See Babel objection; relevance filtering tools, information-embedded, 312 Toomey, Jenny, 123 topical clustering, 248­249 topology, network, 172­173; autonomy and, 146­161; emergent ordered structure, 253­256; linking as trespass, 451­ 453; moderately linked sites, 251­252; peer-to-peer networks, 83­86, 418­ 428, 457; power law distribution of Web site connections, 241­261; quoting on Web, 218; repeater networks, 88­89; strongly connected Web sites, 249­250. See also clusters in network topology Torvalds, Linus, 65­66, 104­105, 136­ 137 trade policy, 317­320, 354­355, 454 trademark dilution, 290, 446­448. See also proprietary rights traditional model of communication, 4, 9, 22­28, 59­60, 383­459, 470­471; autonomy and, 164­166; barriers to justice, 302; emerging role of mass media, 178­180, 185­186, 198­199; enclosure movement, 380­382; mapping, framework for, 389­396; medical innovation and, 345­346; path dependency, 386­389; relationship with social producers, 122­127; security-related policy, 73­74, 396, 457­459; shift away from, 10­13; stakes of information policy, 460­473; structure of mass media, 178­180; transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116. See also market-based information producers transaction costs, 59­60, 106­116 transfer of knowledge, 314­315 transparency of free software, 322 transparency of Internet culture, 285­ 294 transport channel policy, 397­408; broadband regulation, 399­402; mu-

Index

transport channel policy (continued ) nicipal broadband initiatives, 405­408; open wireless networks, 402­405 trespass to chattels, 451­453 troll filters (Slashdot), 78 trusted systems, computers as, 409­410 tubes (Web topology), 249­250 UCC (Uniform Commercial Code), 445 UCITA (Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act), 444­446 Uhlir, Paul, 449 universal intake, 182, 197­199 university alliances, 338­341, 347­350 university-owned radio, 192 unregulated commons, 61 use permissions. See proprietary rights users as consumers, 126­127 uttering content. See inputs to production vacuity of online relations, 360 Vaidhyanathan, Siva, 278, 488 value-added distribution. See distribution of information; relevance filtering value of online contact, 360 vandalism on Wikipedia, 73­74 variety of behavioral options, 150­152, 170 Varmus, Harold, 313 virtual communities, 348­361. See also social relations and norms visibility of mass media, 198 volunteer activity. See nonmarket information producers; peer production volunteer computation resources. See capacity, sharing von Hippel, Eric, 5, 47, 106, 127 voting, electronic, 225­232, 262, 389­ 390 vouching for others, network of, 368 Waltzer, Michael, 281 watchdog functionality, 236, 261­266 Watts, Duncan, 252 weak ties of online relations, 360, 363 Web, 216, 218; backbone sites, 249­250, 258­260; browser wars, 434­436; domain name addresses, 429­434; linking as trespass, 451­453; power law distribution of Web site connections, 241­261; quoting from other sites, 218. See also Internet Web topology. See network topology Weber, Steve, 104­105 welfare, 130­131; commons-based research, 317­328; commons-based strategies, 308­311; digital divide, 236­ 237; freedom from constraint, 157­158; information-based advantages, 311­315; liberal theories of justice, 303­308. See also justice and human development well-being, 19 WELL (Whole Earth `Lectronic Link), 358 Wellman, Barry, 16, 17, 362, 363, 366 Westinghouse, 191, 195 wet-lab science, peer production of, 352­ 353 WiFi. See wireless communications Wikibooks project, 101 Wikipedia project, 70­74, 104; Barbie doll content, 287­289, 292 Wikis as social software, 372­375 Williamson, Oliver, 59 Winner, Langdon, 17 wired communications: market structure of, 152­153; policy on, 399­402. See also broadband networks wireless communications, 87­89; municipal broadband initiatives, 405­408; open networks, 402­405; privatization vs. commons, 152­154. See also radio World Wide Web, 216, 218; backbone sites, 249­250, 258­260; browser

Index

wars, 434­436; domain name addresses, 429­434; linking as trespass, 451­453; power law distribution of Web site connections, 241­261; quoting from other sites, 218. See also Internet writable Web, 216­217 written communication as platform for human connection, 369 Zipf, George, 243 Zittrain, Jonathan, 268





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