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by

Lawrence Lessig



INDEX ABC, 164, 321n academic journals, 262, 280–82 Adobe eBook Reader, 148–53 advertising, 36, 45–46, 127, 145–46, 167– 68, 321n Africa, medications for HIV patients in,

257–61 Agee, Michael, 223–24, 225 agricultural patents, 313n Aibo robotic dog, 153–55, 156, 157, 160 AIDS medications, 257–60 air traffic, land ownership vs., 1–3 Akerlof, George, 232 Alben, Alex, 100–104, 105, 198–99, 295,

317n alcohol prohibition, 200 Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (Carroll), 152–53 Allen, Paul, 100 All in the Family, 164, 165 Amazon, 278 American Association of Law Libraries, 232 American Graphophone Company, 56 Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), 318n Andromeda, 203 Anello, Douglas, 60 animated cartoons, 21–24 antiretroviral drugs, 257–61 Apple Corporation, 203, 264, 302 architecture, constraint effected through,

122, 123, 124, 318n archive.org, 112 see also Internet Archive archives, digital, 108–15, 173, 222, 226–27 Aristotle, 150 Armstrong, Edwin Howard, 3–6, 184, 196 Arrow, Kenneth, 232 art, underground, 186 artists:

publicity rights on images of, 317n recording industry payments to, 52, 58–59, 74, 195, 196–97, 199, 301,

329n–30n retrospective compilations on, 100–104 ASCAP, 18 Asia, commercial piracy in, 63, 64, 65, 302 AT&T, 6 Ayer, Don, 230, 237, 239, 244, 248 Bacon, Francis, 93 Barish, Stephanie, 38, 39, 46 Barlow, Joel, 8 Barnes & Noble, 147 Barry, Hank, 189, 191 BBC, 270 Beatles, 57 Beckett, Thomas, 92 Bell, Alexander Graham, 3 Berlin Act (1908), 327n Berman, Howard L., 322n, 324n Berne Convention (1908), 250, 327n Bernstein, Leonard, 72 Betamax, 75–76 biomedical research, 262–63 Black, Jane, 70 blogs (Web-logs), 41, 42–45, 310n-11n BMG, 162 BMW, 191 Boies, David, 105 Boland, Lois, 265, 266–68 Bolling, Ruben, 246, 247 Bono, Mary, 215, 326n Bono, Sonny, 215, 325n books: English copyright law developed for,

85–94 free on-line releases of, 72–73, 284–85 on Internet, 143, 144, 148–53 out of print, 72, 113, 134, 299, 317n resales of, 72, 134, 299, 314n three types of uses of, 141–43 total number of, 114 booksellers, English, 88–94, 316n Boswell, James, 91 bots, 108, 161 Boyle, James, 129 Braithwaite, John, 267 Branagh, Kenneth, 85, 88 Brandeis, Louis, 34 Brazil, free culture in, 270 Breyer, Stephen, 234, 235, 242, 243 Brezhnev, Leonid, 128 British Parliament, 86, 87, 89–90, 91–92,

94 broadcast flag, 193, 324n Bromberg, Dan, 230 Brown, John Seely, 45, 46, 47, 127 browsing, 145, 147, 277–78 Buchanan, James, 232 Bunyan, John, 93 Burdick, Quentin, 60 Bush, George W., 323n cable television, 59–61, 74–75, 162, 163, 302 camera technology, 32–33, 34, 35, 127 Camp Chaos, 106 CARP (Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel), 324n cars, MP3 sound systems in, 191 Carson, Rachel, 129 cartoon films, 21–25 Casablanca, 148 cassette recording, 69–70, 314n VCRs, 75–76, 77, 158–60, 194, 297, 320n Causby, Thomas Lee, 2, 3, 7, 11, 12, 256,

307n Causby, Tinie, 2, 3, 7, 11, 12, 256, 307n CBS, 164 CD-ROMs, film clips used in, 100–104 CDs:

copyright marking of, 291 foreign piracy of, 63, 64 mix technology and, 203–4 preference data on, 189–90 prices of, 70, 302 sales levels of, 70–71, 314n cell phones, music streamed over, 298 chimeras, 178–79 Christensen, Clayton M., 166, 313n, 321n circumvention technologies, 156, 157–60 civil liberties, 205–7 Clark, Kim B., 321n CNN, 44 Coase, Ronald, 232 Code (Lessig), xiii, xiv, 121, 318n CodePink Women for Peace, xiv, 269 Coe, Brian, 33 Comcast, 321n comics, Japanese, 25–26, 27–28, 29, 309n commerce, interstate, 219, 236, 326n Commerce, U.S. Department of, 126 commercials, 36, 45–46, 127, 167–68, 321n common law, 86, 90, 91, 92 Commons, John R., 318n Communications Decency Act (1996), 325n composers, copyright protections of,

55–59, 74 compulsory license, 57–58 computer games, 37 Conger, 85, 87, 88–89, 90, 91 Congress, U.S.:

on cable television, 61, 74–75 challenge of CTEA legislation of,

228–48 constitutional powers of, 215–16,

219–20, 233, 234–35, 238–39, 240 in constitutional Progress Clause,

130–31, 236 on copyright laws, 56–57, 61, 74–75, 76, 77–78, 133, 134–35, 193, 194, 196,

197, 294, 324n copyright terms extended by, 134–35,

214–18, 219–21, 228, 236 on derivative rights, 294 on digital audio tape, 315n lobbying of, 217–18 on radio, 196, 197 on recording industry, 56–57, 74, 196 Supreme Court restraint on, 218–19,

220, 234 on VCR technology, 76, 77 Conrad, Paul, 158, 159, 160 Constitution, U.S.:

Commerce Clause of, 219, 233, 244,

326n copyright purpose established in, 130–31,

220, 221, 308n, 326n on creative property, 119–20, 130 Fifth Amendment to, 119 First Amendment to, 10, 128, 142, 168,

228, 230, 234, 244, 319n originalist interpretation of, 243 Progress Clause of, 130–31, 215, 218,

232, 236, 243–44 structural checks and balances of, 131 Takings Clause of, 119 Consumer Broadband and Digital Television Promotion Act, 324n contracts, 320n Conyers, John, Jr., 322n cookies, Internet, 278 "copyleft" licenses, 328n copyright: constitutional purpose of, 130–31, 220,

221, 308n, 326n Creative Commons licenses for material in, 282–86 duration of, 24–25, 86, 89–94, 130, 131, 133–35, 172, 214–18, 220, 221–22,

292–93, 294–95, 309n, 319n four regulatory modalities on, 124–26,

132 infringement lawsuits on, see copyright infringement lawsuits marking of, 137, 288, 290–91 as narrow monopoly right, 87–94 of natural authors vs. corporations, 135 no registration of works, 222–23, 249 in perpetuity, 89–90, 91, 92–93, 170,

215, 243, 246, 318n, 325n–26n as property, 83–84, 172 renewability of, 86, 133–34, 135, 289–90,

293, 309n, 319n scope of, 136–39, 140, 169–72, 295, 320n usage restrictions attached to, 87–88,

143–44, 146, 320n voluntary reform efforts on, 275, 277–86 see also copyright law Copyright Act (1790), 133, 137–38, 319n Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel (CARP), 324n copyright infringement lawsuits: distribution technology targeted in,

75–77, 190, 191, 323n exaggerated claims of, 51, 180, 185, 187,

190, 206, 322n individual defendants intimidated by,

51–52, 185, 187, 200, 270 in recording industry, 50–52, 180, 185,

190, 200, 270, 322n, 323n statutory damages of, 51 against student file sharing, 50–52, 180,

322n willful infringement findings in, 146 zero tolerance in, 73–74, 180–81 copyright law:

authors vs. composers in, 56–57 on cable television rebroadcasting,

59–61, 74–75 circumvention technology banned by,

156, 157–60 commercial creativity as primary purpose of, 8, 204, 308n copyright law (cont.)

copies as core issue of, 139–40, 141–44,

146, 171, 319n, 320n creativity impeded by, 19, 184–88, 308n development of, 85–94, 316n English, 17, 85–94, 316n European, 137, 250, 327n as ex post regulation modality, 121–22 fair use and, 95–99, 107, 141–42, 143, 145, 146, 157, 160, 172, 186–87, 283,

292, 316n felony punishment for infringement of,

180, 215, 223, 322n formalities reinstated in, 287–91, 329n government reforms proposed on,

287–306 history of American, 132–38, 170–71 illegal behavior as broad response to,

199–207 innovation hampered by, 188–99 innovative freedom balanced with fair compensation in, 75, 77–79, 120,

129–30, 172–73 international compliance with, 63–64,

313n Japanese, 26, 27–28 lawyers as detriment to, 292, 304–6 malpractice lawsuits against lawyers advising on, 190–91 on music recordings, 55–58, 74, 181,

195, 291 privacy interests in, 308n as protection of creators, 10, 131, 204 registration requirement of, 137, 170–71,

248–54, 288, 289–90, 291, 327n on republishing vs. transformation of original work, 19, 136, 138–39,

144–45, 170–72, 294–96, 319n royalty proposal on derivative reuse in, 106 statutory licenses in, 56–58, 64, 74, 194,

295–96, 300 Supreme Court case on term extension of, 218, 228–48 technology as automatic enforcer of, 147,

148–61, 181, 186, 203, 320n, 324n term extensions in, 134–35, 214–18,

219–21, 228–48 two central goals of, 75 Copyright Office, 252–53, 289, 291 corporations:

copyright terms for, 135 in pharmaceutical industry, 260 "Country of the Blind, The" (Wells), 177–78 Court of Appeals:

D.C. Circuit, 228–29, 231, 235 Ninth Circuit, 76, 105, 323n cover songs, 57 Creative Commons, 270, 282–86 creative property:

of authors vs. composers, 56–57 common law protections of, 133 constitutional tradition on, 118–20,

130–31 "if value, then right" theory of, 18–19,

53 noncommercial second life of, 112–13,

114–15 other property rights vs., 117–24, 140 see also intellectual property rights creativity:

labor shift to, 308n legal restrictions on, 19, 184–88, 308n by transforming previous works,

22–24, 25–29 see also innovation Crichton, Michael, 37 criminal justice system, 167 Crosskey, William W., 318n CTEA, see Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act culture:

archives of, 108–15, 173, 226–27 commerical vs. noncommercial, 7–8,

170–72, 225 see also free culture Cyber Rights (Godwin), 40 Daguerre, Louis, 31 Daley, Elizabeth, 36–37, 38, 39–40, 46 DAT (digital audio tape), 315n, 330n Data General, 279 Day After Trinity, The, 97 D.C. Court of Appeals, 228–29, 231, 235 DDT, 129–30 Dean, Howard, 43 democracy:

digital sharing within, 184 media concentration and, 166 public discourse in, 42, 45 semiotic, 301–2 in technologies of expression, 33, 35,

41–42, 43, 44–45 Democratic Party, 249 derivative works, 329n fair use vs., 145 First Amendment and, 319n historical shift in copyright coverage of,

136, 170–72 piracy vs., 22–24, 25–29, 138–39, 141 reform of copyright term and scope on,

294–96 royalty system proposed for, 106 technological developments and, 144, 171 developing countries, foreign patent costs in, 63, 257–61, 313n Diamond Multimedia Systems, 323n digital audio tape (DAT), 315n, 330n digital cameras, 35, 127 Digital Copyright (Litman), 194 Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 156, 157, 159, 160, 181 Diller, Barry, 165–66 DirecTV, 163 Dirty Harry, 101 Disney, Inc., 23–24, 116, 145–46, 218, 231 Sony Betamax technology opposed by,

75–76 Disney, Walt, 21–24, 25, 26, 28–29, 33–34,

78, 115, 139, 213, 220, 309n DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act), 156, 157, 159, 160, 181 Doctorow, Cory, 72–73, 284 doctors, malpractice claims against, 185,

323n documentary film, 95–99 domain names, 289 Donaldson, Alexander, 90–91, 92 Donaldson v. Beckett, 92–94 Douglas, William O., 2–3 doujinshi comics, 25–26, 27–28, 29 Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom (Doctorow), 72–73, 284 Drahos, Peter, 267 DreamWorks, 106–7 Dreyfuss, Rochelle, 18 driving speed, constraints on, 123–24, 207 Drucker, Peter, 103 drugs:

illegal, 166–67, 201, 207, 321n pharmaceutical, 257–61, 266, 327n,

328n Dryden, John, 316n "Duck and Cover" film, 112 DVDs:

piracy of, 64 price of, 70 Dylan, Bob, 270 Eagle Forum, 231, 232 Eastman, George, 31–34 Eastwood, Clint, 100–103, 295 e-books, 144, 148–53 Edison, Thomas, 3, 53–54, 55, 69, 78 education:

in media literacy, 35–40 tinkering as means of, 45–47, 50 Eldred, Eric, 213–15, 218, 220, 221, 229,

249, 325n Eldred Act, 249–54, 255 Eldred v. Ashcroft, 220, 228–48, 292 elections, 41–42, 43 electoral college, 120, 131 Electronic Frontier Foundation, 205 Else, Jon, 95–99, 186 e-mail, 42 EMI, 162, 191 Eminem, 270 eMusic.com, 181–82 encryption systems, 155–56 England, copyright laws developed in,

85–94 Enlightenment, 89 environmentalism, 129–30 ephemeral films, 112 Errors and Omissions insurance, 98 Erskine, Andrew, 91 ethics, 201 expression, technologies of: democratic, 33, 35, 41–42, 43,

44–45 media literacy and, 35–40 Fairbank, Robert, 105 fair use, 141–43 circumvention technology ban and,

157–58 Creative Commons license vs., 283 in documentary film, 95–99, 316n fuzziness of, 292 Internet burdens on, 143, 145 legal intimidation tactics against, 98–99,

146, 172, 186–87 in sampling works, 107 technological restriction of, 160 Fallows, James, 163–64 Fanning, Shawn, 67 Faraday, Michael, 3 farming, 127, 129 FCC:

on FM radio, 5–6 on media bias, 321n media ownership regulated by, xiv–xv,

162, 269 on television production studios, 165 Felton, Ed, 47, 155–57, 158, 160 feudal system, 267 Fifth Amendment, 119 film industry:

consolidation of, 163 luxury theaters vs. video piracy in, 302 patent piracy at inception of, 53–55 rating system of, 117 trade association of, 116–17, 119, 218,

253–54, 256 trailer advertisements of, 145–46 VCR taping facility opposed by,

75–76 films:

animated, 21–24 archive of, 111, 112 clips and collages of, 100–107 digital copies of, 324n fair use of copyrighted material in,

95–99 multiple copyrights associated with, 95,

101–3, 224 in public domain, 223–25, 254 restoration of, 224, 226 total number of, 114 film sampling, 107 First Amendment, 10, 128, 142, 168, 319n copyright extension as violation of, 228,

230, 234, 244 first-sale doctrine, 146 Fisher, William, 197, 301, 324n, 330n Florida, Richard, 20, 308n FM radio, 4–6, 128, 196, 256 Forbes, Steve, 249, 253 formalities, 137, 287–91 Fourneaux, Henri, 55 Fox, William, 54 Fox (film company), 96, 97, 98, 163 free culture:

Creative Commons licenses for recreation of, 282–86 defined, xvi derivative works based on, 29–30 English legal establishment of, 94 four modalities of constraint on, 121–26,

317n, 318n permission culture vs., xiv, 8, 173 restoration efforts on previous aspects of,

277–82 Free for All (Wayner), 285 free market, technological changes in, 127–28 Free Software Foundation, xv, 231–32, 280 free software/open-source software (FS/ OSS), 45, 65, 264–66, 279–80, 328n French copyright law, 327n Fried, Charles, 233, 237 Friedman, Milton, 232 Frost, Robert, 214, 216–17, 220 Future of Ideas, The (Lessig), 148, 150, 189,

292 Garlick, Mia, 284 Gates, Bill, 128, 266 General Film Company, 54 General Public License (GPL), 265, 280 generic drugs, 266 German copyright law, 327n Gershwin, George, 233, 234 Gil, Gilberto, 270 Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 234, 235, 242 Girl Scouts, 18 Global Positioning System, 263 GNU/Linux operating system, 65, 232,

264, 280 Godwin, Mike, 40 Goldstein, Paul, 295 Google, 48–49, 50 GPL (General Public License), 265, 280 Gracie Films, 96 Grimm fairy tales, 23, 28, 213–14 Grisham, John, 57, 294–95 Groening, Matt, 96, 97, 98 Grokster, Ltd., 323n guns, 159–60, 219 hacks, 154 Hal Roach Studios, 223, 232 Hand, Learned, 312n handguns, 159–60 Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 213, 214 Henry V, 85 Henry VIII, King of England, 88 Herrera, Rebecca, 96, 97 Heston, Charlton, 60 history, records of, 109 HIV/AIDS therapies, 257–61 Hollings, Fritz, 324n Hollywood film industry, 53–55 see also film industry Horovitz, Jed, 187–88 House of Lords, 92–93, 94 Hummer, John, 191 Hummer Winblad, 191 Hyde, Rosel, 60 IBM, 264, 279 "if value, then right" theory, 18–19, 53 images, ownership of, 34, 186 innovation, 67, 313n copyright profit balanced with, 75, 77–79 industry establishment opposed to, 75–76,

188–99 media conglomeration as disincentive for, 164–66 see also creativity Innovator's Dilemma, The (Christensen), 166, 321n insecticide, environmental consequences of,

129–30 Intel, 194, 232 intellectual property rights, 11–12 components of, 309n of drug patents, 260–61, 328n international organization on issues of,

262–64, 265–67, 328n U.S. Patent Office on private control of,

266–69 international law, 63–64, 258–59, 313n Internet:

blogs on, 41, 42–45, 310n–11n books on, 72–73, 143–44, 148–53,

284–85 copyright applicability altered by technology of, 141–44 copyright enforced through, 149–57,

161 copyright regulatory balance lost with,

125–26 creative Web sites on, 185 cultural process transformed by, 7–8 development of, 7, 262, 276–77 domain name registration on, 289 efficient content distribution on, 17–18,

193–94 encryption systems designed for, 155–56 initial free character of, 276–77 music files downloaded from, 67, 180–82,

199, 313n, 323n, 324n news events on, 40–41, 43 peer-generated rankings on, 43 peer-to-peer file sharing on, see peer-to- peer (p2p) file sharing pornography on, 325n privacy protection on, 278–79 public discourse conducted on, 41–45 radio on, 194–99, 324n search engines used on, 48–50 speed of access to, 297–98 user identities released by service providers of, 186, 205–6, 322n Internet Archive, 108–10, 112, 114, 222, 232 Internet Explorer, 65 interstate commerce, 219, 236, 326n Iraq war, 44, 310n, 317n ISPs (Internet service providers), user identities revealed by, 186, 205–6, 322n Iwerks, Ub, 22 Japanese comics, 25–26, 27–28, 29, 309n Jaszi, Peter, 216, 245 Jefferson, Thomas, 84, 120, 284 Johnson, Lyndon, 116 Johnson, Samuel, 93 Jones, Day, Reavis and Pogue ( Jones Day), 229–30, 232, 237 Jonson, Ben, 316n Jordan, Jesse, 48, 49–52, 185, 200, 206 journalism, 44 jury system, 42 Just Think!, 35–36, 41, 45–46 Kahle, Brewster, 47, 110–15, 222, 226–27,

317n Kaplan, Benjamin, 294 Kazaa, 67, 71, 179, 180 Keaton, Buster, 22, 23, 28 Kelly, Kevin, 255 Kennedy, Anthony, 234, 239, 244, 248 Kennedy, John F., 116, 195 Kittredge, Alfred, 56 knowledge, freedom of, 89 Kodak cameras, 32–33, 34, 127, 184 Kodak Primer, The (Eastman), 32 Kozinski, Alex, 76 Krim, Jonathan, 265 labor, 308n, 318n land ownership, air traffic and, 1–3, 294 Laurel and Hardy films, 223 law:

citizen respect for, 199–207 common vs. positive, 86, 90 as constraint modality, 121–22, 123–24,

125, 317n on copyrights, see copyright law databases of case reports in, 65,

280–81 federal vs. state, 133 law schools, 201 lawyers: copyright cultural balance impeded by,

292, 304–6 malpractice suits against, 190–91 Leaphart, Walter, 285 Lear, Norman, 164, 165 legal realist movement, 322 legal system, attorney costs in, 51–52, 185,

186–87, 304–6 Lessig, Lawrence, xiii, xiv, 121, 148, 150,

189, 292, 318n Eldred case involvement of, 215, 216,

218, 228–48 in international debate on intellectual property, 263–64, 267–68, 328n Lessing, Lawrence, 5–6 Lexis and Westlaw, 280–81 libraries: archival function of, 109, 111, 113, 114,

173, 227 journals in, 280, 281 privacy rights in use of, 278 of public-domain literature, 213–14 Library of Congress, 110, 111, 198 Licensing Act (1662), 86 Liebowitz, Stan, 313n, 330n Linux operating system, 65, 232, 264, 280 Litman, Jessica, 194 Lofgren, Zoe, 253 Lott, Trent, 43 Lovett, Lyle, 179, 189 Lucas, George, 98 Lucky Dog, The, 223 McCain, John, 162 Madonna, 59, 121 manga, 25–26, 27–28, 29, 309n Mansfield, William Murray, Lord, 17, 91 Marijuana Policy Project, 321n market competition, 128, 147 market constraints, 122, 123, 125, 188, 192,

318n Marx Brothers, 147–48, 152 media:

blog pressure on, 43 commercial imperatives of, 43, 44 ownership concentration in, xiv–xv, 4–6,

44, 162–68, 269–70 media literacy, 35–40 Mehra, Salil, 27, 309n Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Inc. v.

Grokster, Ltd., 323n MGM, 116 Michigan Technical University, 51 Mickey Mouse, 21–22, 139, 220, 221, 231 Microsoft, 100 competitive strategies of, 65 on free software, 264, 265, 328n government case against, 155 international software piracy of, 65 network file system of, 49 Windows operating system of, 65 WIPO meeting opposed by, 265 Middlemarch (Eliot), 148–50, 151 Mill, John Stuart, 318n Millar v. Taylor, 91, 92 Milton, John, 89, 93, 316n monopoly, copyright as, 88–94 Monroe, Marilyn, 195 Morrison, Alan, 232 Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), 116–17, 119, 218, 253–54,

256 Motion Pictures Patents Company (MPPC), 53–54, 63 Movie Archive, 112 Moyers, Bill, 165 MP3.com, 189–90 MP3 players, 191 MP3s, 125 see also peer-to-peer (p2p) file sharing Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, 158 MTV, 69–70 Müller, Paul Hermann, 129 Murdoch, Rupert, 163 music publishing, 17, 55–56 music recordings:

total number of, 114 see peer-to-peer (p2p) file sharing; recording industry MusicStore, 302 Myers, Mike, 106–7 my.mp3.com, 189–90 Napster, 34, 60, 105 infringing material blocked by, 73–74 number of registrations on, 67 range of content on, 68 recording industry tracking of users of,

206 replacement of, 67 venture capital for, 191 Nashville Songwriters Association, 221 National Writers Union, 232 NBC, 321n Needleman, Rafe, 191 Nesson, Charlie, 201 NET (No Electronic Theft) Act (1998), 215 Netanel, Neil Weinstock, 10, 329n Netscape, 65 New Hampshire (Frost), 214 News Corp., 163 news coverage, 40–41, 43, 44, 110–12 newspapers:

archives of, 109, 110 ownership consolidation of, 163 Nick and Norm anti-drug campaign, 167,

321n Nimmer, David, 105 Nimmer, Melville, 304 1984 (Orwell), 108–9 Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, 76, 105,

323n Nixon, Richard, 293 No Electronic Theft (NET) Act (1998), 215 norms, regulatory influence of, 122, 123,

125 O'Connor, Sandra Day, 234, 238 Olafson, Steve, 310n –11n Olson, Theodore B., 240 open-source software, see free software/ open-source software Oppenheimer, Matt, 51 originalism, 243 Orwell, George, 108–9 parallel importation, 258 Paramount Pictures, 116 Patent and Trademark Office, U.S., 265–69 patents:

duration of, 54–55, 242, 292 on film technology, 53–55 on pharmaceuticals, 258–61, 266, 328n in public domain, 135, 214 Patterson, Raymond, 90 peer-to-peer (p2p) file sharing:

benefits of, 71–73, 79 of books, 72–73 efficiency of, 17–18 felony punishments for, 180, 215, 322n peer-to-peer file sharing (cont.)

four types of, 68–69, 296–97 infringement protections in, 73–74,

181–82 participation levels of, 67, 313n piracy vs., 66–79 reform proposals of copyright restraints on, 296–304 regulatory balance lost in, 125, 206–7 shoplifting vs., 179–80 total legalization of, 180 zero-tolerance of, 180–82 Peer-to-Peer Piracy Prevention Act,

324n permission culture:

free culture vs., xiv, 8, 173 transaction burdens of, 192–93 permissions:

coded controls vs., 149–53 photography exempted from, 33–35 for use of film clips, 100–107 see also copyright pharmaceutical patents, 258–61, 328n phonograph, 55 photocopying machines, 171 photography, 31–35 Picker, Randal C., 324n piracy:

in Asia, 63, 64, 65, 302 commercial, 62–66, 313n derivative work vs., 22–24, 25–29,

138–39, 141 in development of content industry,

53–61, 312n of intangible property, 64, 71, 179–80 international, 63–64 profit reduction as criterion of, 66–71, 73 p2p file sharing vs., 66–79 uncritical rejection of, 183–84 player pianos, 55, 56, 75 PLoS (Public Library of Science), 262,

281–82 Pogue, David, xiii political discourse, 41, 42–45 Politics (Aristotle), 150 Porgy and Bess, 233 pornography, 233, 325n positive law, 86, 90 power, concentration of, xv, 12 Prelinger, Rick, 112 Princeton University, 51 privacy rights, 205, 277–79 Progress Clause, 130–31, 215, 218, 232,

236, 243–44 prohibition, citizen rebellion against,

199–207 Promises to Keep (Fisher), 301 property rights:

air traffic vs., 1–3, 294 as balance of public good vs. private interests, 172–73, 322n copyright vs., 83–84, 172–73 feudal system of, 267 formalities associated with, 287–88 intangibility of, 84, 315n Takings Clause on, 119 see also copyright; creative property; intellectual property rights proprietary code, 279–80 protectionism, of artists vs. business interests, 9 p2p file sharing, see peer-to-peer (p2p) file sharing Public Citizen, 232 public domain:

access fees for material in, 281 balance of U.S. content in, 133, 170–72,

318n–19n content industry opposition to, 253–56 defined, 24 e-book restrictions on, 148–50, 152–53 English legal establishment of, 93 films in, 223–25, 254 future patents vs. future copyrights in,

134–35, 214 legal murkiness on, 185–86 library of works derived from, 213–14 license system for rebuilding of, 281–86 protection of, 220–21 p2p sharing of work in, 73 public projects in, 262–63 traditional term for conversion to,

24–25 Public Enemy, 285 Public Library of Science (PloS), 262,

281–82 Quayle, Dan, 110 radio:

FM spectrum of, 3–6, 128, 196, 256 on Internet, 194–99 music recordings played on, 58–59, 74,

195, 312n ownership consolidation in, 162–63 railroad industry, 127 rap music, 107 RCA, 4–5, 6, 7, 128, 184, 256, 275 Reagan, Ronald, 233, 237, 263 Real Networks, 302 recording industry: artist remuneration in, 52, 58–59, 74,

195, 196–97, 199, 301, 329n–30n CD sales levels in, 70–71, 314n composers' rights vs. producers' rights in,

56–58, 74 copyright infringement lawsuits of, 50–52, 180, 185, 190, 200, 270, 322n,

323n copyright protections in, 55–58, 74, 181,

195, 291 international piracy in, 63 Internet radio hampered by, 196–99,

324n new recording technology opposed by,

69–70, 314n out-of-print music of, 68, 71–72, 314n ownership concentration in, 162 piracy in, 55–58 radio broadcast and, 58–59, 74, 196, 312n statutory license system in, 56–58 Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA): on CD sales decline, 70, 71 on circumvention technology, 158, 160 copyright infringement lawsuits filed by,

50–52, 180, 185, 190, 200, 270, 322n on encryption system critique, 156–57 on Internet radio fees, 197, 198–99 intimidation tactics of, 51–52, 200, 206 ISP user identities sought by, 205–6, 322n lobbying power of, 52, 197, 218 Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) v. Diamond Multimedia Systems, 323n Recording Industry Association of America v.

Verizon Internet Services, 322n regulation: as establishment protectionism, 126–28,

188–99 four modalities of, 121–26, 317n, 318n outsize penalties of, 190, 192 rule of law degraded by excess of,

199–207 Rehnquist, William H., 219, 234, 239–40 remote channel changers, 127 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), 48 computer network search engine of,

49–51 Republican Party, 104, 249 "Rhapsody in Blue" (Gershwin), 221 RIAA, see Recording Industry Association of America "Rip, Mix, Burn" technologies, 203 Rise of the Creative Class, The (Florida), 20,

308n Roberts, Michael, 189 robotic dog, 153–55, 156, 157, 160 Rogers, Fred, 158, 320n Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare), 85–86, 87,

316n Rose, Mark, 91 RPI, see Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Rubenfeld, Jed, 319n Russel, Phil, 55 Saferstein, Harvey, 104–5 Safire, William, xiv–xv, 269 San Francisco Muni, 321n San Francisco Opera, 95, 97 Sarnoff, David, 5 Saturday Night Live, 106 Scalia, Antonin, 234, 238, 240, 247 Scarlet Letter, The (Hawthorne), 214 Schlafly, Phyllis, 231 schools, gun possession near, 219 Schwartz, John, 79 scientific journals, 280, 281–82 Scottish publishers, 86, 90–91, 93 Screen Actors Guild, 60 search engines, 48–50 "Seasons, The" (Thomson), 91 Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI), 155–56 semiotic democracy, 301–2 Senate, U.S., 120, 131 FCC media ownership rules reversed by,

269 see also Congress, U.S.

Sentelle, David, 228–29, 231, 235, 243 September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks of, 40,

41, 111–12 Seuss, Dr., 233, 234 Shakespeare, William, 29, 85, 87, 88, 93, 316n sheet music, 17, 56 Silent Spring (Carson), 129 Simpsons, The, 95–98 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 262–63 Sites, Kevin, 310n –11n 60 Minutes, 105, 111 Slade, Michael, 101 slavery, 120 Smith, David, 309n Snowe, Olympia, xv software, open-source, see free software/ open-source software Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) (1998), 134, 135, 215,

218, 221, 223 Supreme Court challenge of, 228, 230,

231, 234–48, 252, 304 Sony: Aibo robotic dog produced by, 153–55,

156, 157 Betamax technology developed by, 75–76 Sony Music Entertainment, 162 Sony Pictures Entertainment, 116 Sousa, John Philip, 56 Souter, David, 234, 235, 242, 244 South Africa, Republic of, pharmaceutical imports by, 258–59 speech, freedom of, 318n constitutional guarantee of, 128 film-rating system vs., 117 useful criticism fostered by, 156 speeding, constraints on, 123–24, 207 spider, 108 Spielberg, Steven, 107 Stallman, Richard, xv–xvi, 279–80, 330n Stanford University, 282 Star Wars, 98 Starwave, 100–101 Statute of Anne (1710), 86, 87, 89, 90, 91,

92, 133 Statute of Monopolies (1656), 88 statutory damages, 51 statutory licenses, 57–58, 64, 74, 194,

295–96, 300 Steamboat Bill, Jr., 22–23, 26, 34 Steamboat Willie, 21–23, 309n steel industry, 127 Stevens, John Paul, 234, 235, 242 Stevens, Ted, xv Stewart, Gordon, 229, 230 Story, Joseph, 252 Sullivan, Kathleen, 232–33 Superman comics, 27 Supreme Court, U.S.:

access to opinions of, 281 on airspace vs. land rights, 2–3, 307n annual docket of, 229 on balance of interests in copyright law,

77, 78 on cable television, 61 congressional actions restrained by,

218–19, 220, 234 on copyright term extensions, 218, 228–48 factions of, 234–35 House of Lords vs., 92 on Internet pornography restrictions, 325n on television advertising bans, 168 on VCR technology, 76–77 Sutherland, Donald, 102 Takings Clause, 119 Talbot, William, 31 Tatel, David, 229 Tauzin, Billy, 324n tax system, 201 Taylor, Robert, 91 technology: archival opportunity afforded through,

113–14, 115 of circumvention, 156, 157–60 of copying, 171 copyright enforcement controlled by, 147,

148–61, 181, 186, 203–4, 320n, 324n copyright intent altered by, 141–44 cut-and-paste culture enabled by, 105–6,

203 of digital capturing and sharing, 184–85 established industries threatened by changes in, 69–70, 126–28 innovative improvements in, 67, 313n legal murkiness on, 192 television, 6 advertising on, 36, 127, 167–68, 321n cable vs. broadcast, 59–61, 74–75, 302 controversy avoided by, 168, 321n independent production for, 164–66 industry trade association of, 116 ownership consolidation in, 162, 163 VCR taping of, 75–76, 158–60 Television Archive, 110, 111–12 Thomas, Clarence, 234 Thomson, James, 91, 92 Thurmond, Strom, 43 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 42 Tonson, Jacob, 85, 86, 316n tort reform, 323n Torvalds, Linus, 280 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Prop erty Rights (TRIPS) agreement, 313n Turner, Ted, 269 Twentieth Century Fox, 116 twins, as chimera, 178–79 United Kingdom:

copyright requirements in, 327n history of copyright law in, 85–94 public creative archive in, 270 United States Trade Representative (USTR), 258–59 United States v. Lopez, 219, 220, 234,

235–36, 239, 241, 242, 243 United States v. Morrison, 219, 234 Universal Music Group, 162, 191 Universal Pictures, 75–76, 116 university computer networks, p2p sharing on, 48–51, 180, 206–7, 270, 322n used record sales, 72, 314n Vaidhyanathan, Siva, 316n, 322n Valenti, Jack, 205, 238 background of, 116, 117 on creative property rights, 10, 117–20,

140 Eldred Act opposed by, 253 perpetual copyright term proposed by,

326n on VCR technology, 76 Vanderbilt University, 110 VCRs, 75–76, 77, 158–60, 194, 297,

320n venture capitalists, 189, 191 Verizon Internet Services, 205, 322n veterans' pensions, 293 Video Pipeline, 145–46, 187 Vivendi Universal, 182, 190 von Lohmann, Fred, 205, 207 Wagner, Richard, 95, 97 Warner Brothers, 101, 116, 147–48, 152 Warner Music Group, 162 Way Back Machine, 108, 109, 110 Wayner, Peter, 284 Web-logs (blogs), 41, 42–45, 310n–11n Web sites, domain name registration of,

289 Webster, Noah, 8 Wellcome Trust, 262 Wells, H. G., 177–78 White House press releases, 317n willful infringement, 146 Windows, 65 Winer, Dave, 44–45 Winick, Judd, 26–27 WJOA, 321n WorldCom, 185 World Intellectual Property Organiza tion (WIPO), 262–64, 265–67,

328n World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), 263–64, 266 World Trade Center, 40 World Wide Web, 262 WRC, 321n Wright brothers, 1, 3, 11–12 Yanofsky, Dave, 36 Zimmerman, Edwin, 60–61 Zittrain, Jonathan, 324n



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